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A Study of Speech Acts in WhatsApp Conversations of Non-Teaching Staff of University of Uyo

By: Awoniyi Olalekan Ogundeji
Email: info@uujh,org

Tel: 08142809795

Abstract

There have been many linguistic studies on social media, fostering effective communications in Nigeria. However, linguists pay little or no attention to the use of language on social media by non-teaching staff of Nigerian universities, which if researched, may enhance the capacity of the productive services of staff. Therefore, this study conducts speech acts analysis on WhatsApp chats of non-teaching staff of the University of Uyo with a view to identifying the speech acts they perform. It uses speech acts theory to analyze sixtytwo purposive sampled messages of the staff in their WhatsApp chats. The study uses qualitative and quantitative data analysis to describe the pragmatic acts of the university staff. It shows that the staff usually use speech acts of directives, assertives, expressives, commissives and declaratives in their communications. Notwithstanding, the frequency of acting declaratives is very low. Therefore, the study recommends that the non-teaching staff should imbibe idea of better discussion on their professional theories in order to adhere to using of declarative speech act of pronouncing, christening and judging. This shall strengthen their better mastery of office schedules.

Keywords

Message, SSANU, ANUPA, WhatsApp, Commissives, and Declaratives.

Introduction

Language of media remains a veritable tool of communication in both formal and informal settings. It is also the manipulative and communicative instrument through which people's opinions, feelings and emotions are shared among one another. By the advent of computermediated chat groups popularly known as social media in last decades, users in the formal and informal settings have been availing themselves with the opportunity to pass across one another important piece of information as well as creation of humours. Doing so, language use in the social media has been playing significant roles in the meaning making processes such as educational orientation, business negotiations, welfare discussion, duty allocations, and a host of others.

Content

WhatsApp is a form of technological application which is used through either hand phone or other mobile computer settings. Though there are many other Message-sending applications in Nigeria but WhatsApp remains the most popular among them. The use of language on the platforms has been investigated by many linguistic scholars in Nigeria and beyond. Adebola (2017) has examined WhatsApp fora messages of undergraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University,Ile-Ife show their use of the social media platform. She focused on the signification of smileys and emojis in the WhatsApp interactions of the selected students' WhatsApp platforms. The researcher deploys the instrumentalist approach in the study of semiotics in the WhatsApp conversations of the undergraduate students of the university. Otemuyiwa (2017) conducts a linguistic analysis of WhatsApp conversations of undergraduate students in Joseph Ayo Babalola University.

Conclusion

The research work analysed pragmatic acts of non-teaching staff in the University of Uyo to characterise their language use in their created social media fora. The research work discovered that the staff of the university are prone to use of directives, assertives, expressives, commissives, and declaratives in the course of their interactions in the platforms. The commonly used speech acts were hierarchically listed in the table and discussed accordingly. The results showed that the staff deployed speech acts like directives, assertives and expressives more often in their communications with one another in the chat group. The degree at which they used commissives and declaratives was very low. Perhaps the staff used the platform for discussion on their professional theories, their acting of declaratives would have been frequent. This research work recommends therefore that non-teaching staff should avail themselves the WhatsApp platforms to organise seminar and workshop which will improve their performing of directive speech act. So, they will name, judge and pronounce to change the world in their chosen careers

References

Adebola, A. (2017). Semiotics in WhatsApp conversations of undergraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. International Journal of English and Literature. Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Awonusi, V. (2004). Little Englishes and the law of energetics: A sociolinguistic study of SMS text messages as register and discourse in Nigerian English. AFestschrift: University of Lagos. Chiluwa, I. (2008). SMS text-messaging and the Nigerian Christian context: Constructing values and sentiments. International Journal of Language, Society and Culture. Chiluwa, I. (2012). Social media networks and discourse of resistance: A sociolinguistic CDA of Biafra online discourse. Discourse and Society. Jorgensen, M. (2012). Discourse analysis as theory and method. London: SAGE Publications. Ogbogbo, A. M. (2019). A pragmatic analysis of South-Westerners' complementary and alternative medicine discourse on social media. Paper presented at the Ibadan Humboldt Kolleg in Linguistics and Humanistic Medicine (IB-HUMANMED), held in University of Ibadan, September 23-26, 2019. Osiaku, E. (2020). A speech acts analysis of language use in Okoye University students' WhatsApp messages. AFestschrift: University Press, Ibadan. Otemuyiwa, A. (2017). A linguistic analysis of WhatsApp conversations of undergraduates of Joseph Ayo Babalola University. Studies in English Language Teaching. Osisanwo, W. (2008). Introduction to discourse analysis and pragmatics. Lagos: Femolus Fetop Publishers. Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, J. (1975). Indirect speech acts. In Syntax and semantics. New York: Academic Press. Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in interaction: An introduction to pragmatics. London: Longman.

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The Socio-Cultural Functionality of Yoruba Court Poetry

By: Mulikah Adeyemi Lawal
Email: madedamola@unilag.edu.ng

Tel: 07030903337

Abstract

This paper examines the socio-cultural functions of Yoruba Court Poetry (YCP) using data from the palace of the Aláàfin of Ọ̀yọ, a prominent monarch in Nigeria. It argues that, ́ contrary to popular opinions, YCP does not just eulogise the king but serves as a medium through which many social values can be maintained and reinforced. The study employs the interview method of generating data as the palace poet of the monarch was interviewed during the process of which he gave a rendition of the chants, which were later qualitatively analysed. The analysis was done in line with concepts from the Functionalism theory of Bronislaw Malinowski. The analysis revealed that YCP performs so many functions that it can even be used to solve some societal challenges. Hence, the study concludes that YCP should be recognised as an authentic sub-genre of Yorùbá oral poetryseparately from personal and lineage panegyrics. It is also recommended that it should be taught in conventional schools and the new media.

Keywords

court poetry, socio-cultural, functionality, interview, eulogy.

Introduction

This study attempts to examine Yorùbá Court Poetry (YCP), as a sub-genre of Yorùbá Oral Poetry. Therefore, the study is in the ethnographical field of oral literature. Court Poetry (CP) is also occasionally called Royal Poetry (Akíntúndé). It includes the poems, songs, and chants collected, composed, and chanted or recited by bards, spouses, and children of a ruler or leader usually for the purpose of eulogy. The fact that in every society, there is usually a bond between the ruler(s) and the ruled is already well established. Often, the ruled assist in propagating and entrenching the identity and personality of the rulers in a bid to avow the supremacy of their leader. This emphasises the sovereignty of the society and its leaders. CP is one of the materials used by members of a society to highlight the authority and impact of their ruler and their society. In addition, the genre reveals the poet's allegiance to his patron(s) (Cope 22). Sometimes, the bards compose the poems for the society and the monarch. When this occurs, the people can identify with the leader, and appropriate his attributes to the entire society and her members.

Content

In the opinion of Bronislaw Malinowski, the functionalist theory focuses on the idea that all human occasions and actions have a cultural, practical, and special function. This is why functionalists believe that it is imperative and more fulfilling for the functions of the activities of people to be studied in order to exploit the usage of such activities for the betterment of society. Malinowski also posits, “the human societies and culture are best understood as an assemblage of contrivances for satisfying the biological and psychological needs of the human organism that makes up the society (ix). This emphasises the idea that society will habitually have “biological and psychological needs”, which the cultural activities are expected to solve. This confirms the functionalist notion of “the theory of need”, which accentuates the functionalist ideology that every cultural activity has certain functions it performs in society. In the opinion of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, another prominent scholar of functionalism, Function is “…the part it plays in the social life as a whole and therefore contribution it makes to the maintenance of the structural continuity” (396). Like Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown accentuates the point that if the needs of a society are not fulfilled, the consequences will be severe and could disrupt the permanence of the progressive processes of the society

Conclusion

This paper has attempted to examine the socio-cultural functionality of Yorùbá court poetry. It starts by discussing the nature of CP using the works of different scholars before delving into its focus. Through a semi-structured interview of the palace bards, the paper utilises data on YCP from the palace of the Aláàfin of Ọ̀yọ, Nigeria. It examines the content in a bid to ́ deduce these functions and accentuate the functionalist idea of the theory of need. The functionalism of Bronislaw Malinowski emphasises the theory of need, which is a concept that focuses on the idea that every human or cultural activity has a purpose, which he calls a need. This has been found to be true especially in relation to the content of YCP. Some of the functions YCP performs include psychotherapy, conflict resolution, teaching of morals, portrayal of societal beliefs and values, etc. It is believed that if these functions are judiciously espoused, they can avail the society by serving as source of development and solution to contemporary challenges. Hence, it is recommended that YCP could serve as an unorthodox solution to modern challenges in the society. It therefore becomes imperative that individuals should be made to learn their CP as well as have a passing knowledge of that of others. This can be achived through the social media where the chants can be streamed for easy access. The chants could also be taught in schools by being entrenched in syllabuses of Nigerian languages. This will help to prevent the genre from going into extinction as it is largely based on memory. It will also decolonize education and learning especially as the oral forms that perform these functions have been in existence for a long time and are still relevant today especially when adapted to contemporary usage/media.

References

Adeeko, A. (2001). Oral poetry and hegemony: Yoruba Oriki. Dialectical Anthropology, 26(3/4), 181-192. Afolayan, B. F. (2019). The court poet/praise singer in Wole Soyinka's Death and the King's Horseman and Ola Rotimi's Ovonramwen Nogbaisi: A critical appraisal. Afrika Focus, 32(1), 137-148. Akinyemi, A. (1997). The aesthetics of Yoruba Yungba chant. Inquiry in African Languages and Literatures, 1(1), 37-44. Akinyemi, A. (2001). The Yoruba royal bards: Their work and relevance in the society. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 10(1), 90-106. Akinyemi, A. (2004). Yoruba royal poetry: A socio-historical exposition and annotated translation. Bayreuth: Bayreuth African Studies. Golding, B., Brown, M., & Foley, A. (2009). Informal learning: A discussion around defining and researching its breadth and importance. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 49(1), 34-56. Boone, B. C. (2006). The impact of poetry therapy on symptoms of secondary posttraumatic stress disorder in domestic violence counsellors (PhD thesis). Texas A&M University. Fadipe, A. (1970). The sociology of the Yoruba. Ibadan: University Press. Finnegan, R. (2005). Oral traditions and the verbal arts. London: Routledge. Finnegan, R. (2012). Oral literature in Africa. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. Hasler, A. J. (2011). Court poetry in late medieval England and Scotland: Allegories of authority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jegede, O. B. (2005). A semiotic study of court poetry performance in Nigeria: Text and context. *Africa: Revista do Centro de Estudos Africanos, 287-310. Johnson, S. (1921). The history of the Yoruba: From the earliest times to the beginning of the British protectorate. Lagos: CSS Limited. Kolawole, A. A. (1990). Major themes of Yoruba oral poetry (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Ibadan. Malinowski, B. (1944). A scientific theory of culture and other essays. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Meisami, J. S. (1987). Medieval Persian court poetry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ojebode, A. (n.d.). Animal psychology and zoonymes in the cognomen of the Alaafin of Oyo. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Studies, 1(5), 22-27. Parsons, T. (1966). The structure and social action. New York: Free Press. Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1957). Structure and function in primitive societies. London: Cohen and West. Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1935). On the concept of function in the social science. American Anthropologist, 37, 394-402. Rogers, A. (2014). The base of the iceberg: Informal learning and its impact on formal and non-formal learning. Toronto: Verlag Barbara Budrich Publishers. Salas-Pilco, S. Z. (2012). Informal learning: A conceptual clarification towards a learning continuum. In Y. Cai, Y. Xino, & M. Yu (Eds.), Research studies in education. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong Press. Staricoff, R. L. (2006). Arts in health: A review of the medical literature. England: Arts Council.

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The Role of Interreligious Dialogue in Environmental Protection in Nigeria

By: Omorovie Ikeke
Email: drikeke@delsu.edu.ng

Abstract

The environmental crisis is affecting every region and country of the world. The environmental crisis is manifesting in Nigeria through various environmental problems present in the country such as deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, land and atmospheric pollution, and mismanagement of solid and chemical waste. Unless these environmental problems are attended to the country runs the risk of suffering more environmental degradation, health hazards, and so on. All social agents have a duty to contribute to abating the environmental crisis. Among these social agents are religious bodies and institutions. This paper argues that it is not enough for religious bodies as separate groups to be interested and engage in environmental protection, but that they need to be involved collectively to be more effective. To do this, they need to engage in interreligious dialogue of social action of engagement. In Nigeria, it is rare to see religious bodies doing interreligious dialogue for social and environmental projects. The paper uses analytic and hermeneutic methods to examine these issues. The paper concludes that this form of religious dialogue is extremely necessary for promoting environmental protection in Nigeria.

Keywords

Religion, dialogue, environment, conservation, advocacy

Introduction

Environmental crisis remains one of the most precarious problems threatening the existence of human beings and all lives on earth. In many of its forms, the environmental crisis is caused or precipitated by human activities and actions. Human activities have led to pollution of air, land, and marine resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, climate change, forced migration, noise pollution, ghettoes, urban violence, unplanned urbanization, and so on. In Nigeria, environmental problems include gas flaring, oil spillage, and pollution, biodiversity destruction, mismanagement of solid and chemical waste, insecurity, food crisis, and so on. Usman (2012) rightly asserts that anthropogenic causes of environmental degradation include- mining, industrial activities, agricultural activities, oil exploration, waste disposal, and overfishing.

Content

There are many theories on the origin of religion and what religion is and is not. On the theories of religion, Greenway (2007) writes that the theories of religion include sociological, psychological, functionalist, interpretive, and rationalist. The sociological concerns the pragmatic social function of religion in sustaining social order. The sociological view is traceable to Emile Durkheim who sees society as sacred and the basis of religion. ...

Conclusion

The paper has examined the role of interreligious dialogue in promoting environmental protection in Nigeria. The environmental crisis is affecting Nigeria and has led to the loss of lives and destruction of properties. Many religions agree on a created earth. The creator God has given the responsibility to human beings to take care of the earth. The paper also reveals those environmental problems that respect no human being or religion. When there are environmental problems, they affect all people. It is important then that heads of different religious bodies dialogue and collaborate to engage in common environmental issues projects in Nigeria. Some of the various ways that the religions in Nigeria can engage in collaboration were also presented. If these are done, it will help to create an environmentally sustainable Nigeria.

References

Arinze, F. C. (2002). Religions for peace: A call for solidarity to religions of the world. London: Darton, Longman and Todd Limited. Bellamy, P. (2007). Academic's dictionary of environment. New Delhi: Academic (India) Publishers. Catholic Bishops of Vatican II. (1963). Pastoral constitution on the church in the modern world: Gaudium et spes. Retrieved from https://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19651207_gaudium-et-spes_en.html Clark University. (2023). What is dialogue? Retrieved from https://www2.clarku.edu/difficultdialogues/learn/index.cfm Combs, J. (2019). What is dialogue? Retrieved from https://udayton.edu/blogs/dialoguezone/19-10-28-what-is-dialogue.php Dick, C. J., & Ede, V. I. (2021). Religion and the control of environmental crises in Nigeria. In A. I. Kanu (Ed.), African Eco-Theology: Meaning, forms and expressions (pp. 303-319). Retrieved from https://www.acjol.org/index.php/jassd/article/view/1940 Environmental Law Research Institute. (2021). A synopsis of laws and regulations on the environment in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://elri-ng.org/environmental-law-policies-in-nigeria/ Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2011). 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria with amendments 2011. Abuja: The National Assembly. Forward Action for Conservation of Indigenous Species. (2019). Forward Action for Conservation of Indigenous Species. Retrieved from https://www.peaceinsight.org/en/organisations/facis/?location=nigeria&theme Gbonegun, V. (2019). How faith-based groups can protect the planet. Retrieved from https://guardian.ng/property/how-faith-based-groups-can-protect-the-planet/ Greenway, C. (2007). Theories of religion. In O. O. Espin & J. B. Nickoloff (Eds.), An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies (pp. 1153-1156). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. Harrison, V. S. (2007). Religion and modern thought. London: SCM Press. Hill, B. R. (2013). World religions and contemporary issues: How evolving views on ecology, peace, and women are impacting faith today. New London, CT: Twenty-Third Publications. Igwe, L. (2018). For a meaningful inter-religious dialogue in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://guardian.ng/opinion/for-a-meaningful-inter-religious-dialogue-in-nigeria/ Ijaw Youths of Nigeria. (1988). The Kaiama declaration. Retrieved from http://www.unitedijaw.com/kaiama.htm Ikeke, M. O. (2020). The role of philosophy of ecology and religion. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 19(57), 81-95. Joseph, B., & Aye, G. C. (2018). Effect of climate change on food security and poverty in Nigeria. In C. U. Okoye & D. Abah (Eds.), Dynamics of natural resource and environmental management in Nigeria: Theory, practice, bureaucracy and advocacy (pp. 11-22). Enugu: Debees Printing and Publishing Company. Kodithuwakku, K. I. J. (2021). 35th anniversary of interreligious meeting for peace in Assisi. Retrieved from https://www.dicasteryinterreligious.va/35th-anniversary-of-interreligious-meeting-for-peace-in-assisi/ Mayhew, S. (2009). Oxford dictionary of geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Obaje, F. A. (2018). Religion and society, volume 2. Lagos: Distinct Press. Omonokhua, C. A. (2014). Dialogue in context: A Nigerian experience. Kaduna: Virtual Insignia. Oyesola, D. (1998). Politics of international environmental regulations. Ibadan: Daily Graphics Publications. Oyeshola, D. (2019). Sustainable development: Issues and challenges for Nigeria (2nd ed.). Osogbo: Atman Limited. Panikkar, R. (1999). The intra-religious dialogue. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press. Parliament of World Religions. (1993). Towards a global ethic. Retrieved from https://parliamentofreligions.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/Global-Ethic-PDF-2020-Update.pdf Phiri, F., & Ryan, P. (2016). Inter-religious dialogue in Africa: In search of religious respect. Nairobi: Pauline Publications Africa. Society of African Missions. (2013). What is interreligious dialogue? Retrieved from https://sma.ie/chapter-1-what-is-interreligious-dialogue/ Tella, A. (2016). Critical issues in environmental sustainability. Abeokuta: Center for Human Security of Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library. Tillich, P. (1963). Christianity and encounter with the world religions. New York: Columbia University. Usman, A. K. (2012). Environmental protection law and practice. Ibadan: Ababa Press Limited.

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Teaching Ibibio Indigenous Knowledge to Children through Drama in Akwa Ibom State.

By: Idaresit Inyang
Email: idaresitofonime@gmail.com

Tel: 08038686394

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to advance the possibility of using educational drama to renew the interest of children in their Indigenous knowledge resources. Using a practice-led experiment with a group of approximately 50 Ibibio children aged 9-12, in selected primary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, the available indigenous knowledge resources, namely proverbs, folktales, storytelling, myths, folksongs, and games were applied and examined in an educational context. Based on this background, this paper proposes the application of constructionism, participatory learning and play-crafting as a learning method for schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper concludes that through various levels of investigation and field experiment, it is established that the application of indigenous resource could transform the learning experience for children with optimal benefit to the child and society.

Keywords

Indigenous Knowledge, Play, Child Drama, Folktales, Play-crafting.

Introduction

Indigenous knowledge is the original knowledge that informs how people live and conduct their lives in a particular society. Indigenous knowledge is a field of study and a concept that has been widely researched by linguists, sociologists, historians, cultural researchers, literary scholars, anthropologists among others. Most of the researchers have focused on threats to the indigenous knowledge systems in different societies. However, the focus of this study, is on how young learners in these contemporary times could be encouraged to embrace and identify with their indigenous resources as a tool of education and knowledge building using creative processes. Acore component of indigenous knowledge is language. Language is the fulcrum of a people's identity; it provides the background to who we are as a people located in different parts of the world. Without language there cannot be communication or any development. Language is one cultural aspect that is linked to both education and indigenous knowledge transfer, because language carries culture, and culture also carries language; hence one may ask how else indigenous languages could be promoted and preserved if not via language (Mapara & Mutasa, 2011).

Content

The indigenous knowledge resources including myths, folktales, songs, dances and proverbs of the Ibibio people are gradually losing their position as instruments of societal health building and knowledge transfer from generation to generation. This paper aims at applying the folk cultural lessons of the Ibibio in a process of play-crafting and drama with children. The purpose is to investigate whether it is possible to use drama to get the renewed interest of children in indigenous knowledge resources to aid or teach the moral lessons, thereby enhancing the societal well-being of the Ibibio people and that of southern Nigerians. In doing this, the paper also aims at establishing a basis for the application of the outcomes of this research by future teachers and educators in the Akwa Ibom State.

Conclusion

This paper examined a dramatic basis for teaching and learning premised on the exploration of indigenous resources. Using an experiment with pupils ages 9-12 in selected schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, the paper analysed the context, constraints and outcomes of creative education focused on moral development and cultural awareness. Through this analysis, a contextual basis for the application of indigenous knowledge in education has been established in sub–Saharan Africa and provides the template for further experiments in other contexts. Based on this background, this paper is able to conclude that the development of children's cognitive abilities and overall intellectual development can tap from available indigenous resources thereby reducing the complete dependence on foreign cultural and educational norms and materials.

References

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Johnson, Effiong, & Inegbe (Eds.), A road well conquered: Kalu Uka, literature and pedagogy (pp. 138–150). Calabar: Evangel Press. Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). England: Pearson Education Limited. Nkanga, J. (2010). An appraisal of values and challenges of drama and theatre-in-education in Nigeria. Focus on Theatre: A Quarterly Journal of Theatre Discourse, 4(2), 4–15. Nsereka, B., & Iyalla, A. (2018). An appraisal of folktales in the socio-political development of Engenni communities in Rivers State. University of Uyo Journal of Humanities, 22(2), 519–532. Oko, O. (2009). Extracts from learning through theatre: New perspectives on theatre-in-education. Olaoye, A. (2011). Indigenous languages and national development. In O. A. B. Obafemi (Ed.), Perspectives on cultural administration in Nigeria (pp. 50–63). Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited. Olunlade, T. (1988). Traditional sources of Yoruba children's poetry. 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Socio-Pragmatic Exploration of Honorifics and Humilifics in Ibibio Language

By: Friday Ude
Email: fridayude@uniuyo.edu.ng

Tel: 08038148031

Abstract

This research examines the socio-pragmatic of honorifics and humilifics in Ibibio language. The objectives of this study are to identify as well as explore the socio-cultural functions of honorifics and humilifics in Ibibio society. Fifty-six data were elicited from two sets of consultants – two elderly men and two elderly women, two male youth and two female who are natives of Nung Oku Ikono in Ikono local Government Area. These consultants have lived in Ibibio land for more than twenty years. They have been members of Nung Oku Ikono governing council at different times, thus they are acculturated in the traditional norms of the people. The results of this research have shown that Ibibio has verbal, non-verbal and material honorifics and humilifics in Ibibio. Honorifics are used to show respect and honour to a person in the society while humilifics are used to ridicule or debase a person in Ibibio society. Material honorifics are commonly used to show respect to royalties and celebrities in Ibibio land. They are sacrilegious and serve as inheritance of the royal family. Findings have revealed that special occasion honorifics in Ibibio society are temporal responsibility titles given to an individual due to the nature of his or her assignment. Some of the verbal humilifics are used by the young people as slang, nicknames which they give to their friends based on the way they behave, dress, talk or do things. Elders see humilifics as insults while the younger folks used them for fun. We recommend that the people should acculturated and imbued with the semantics and pragmatics of honorifics and humilifics of Ibibio culture

Keywords

Socio-pragmatic, honorifics, humilifics, Ibibio, culture

Introduction

Language is dynamic and language performs certain functions. The basic functions of language according to Halliday (2003:80) include the regulatory, interactional, representational functions. Other functions are personal, imaginative, instrumental and heuristic. The dynamic function of human language is yielding great and expanding result daily. The formation of new codes to describe new status acquired and attainment in life is increasing the vocabulary of indigenous language tremendously. Many aspects of human endeavours are significantly improving the content and context of addressing people in our world today. Among such are the honorifics and humilifics terms used to distinguish people's class in the society, attainment in life, occupation, position occupy at home, work, school, religious and social organization. Honorifics are derived from the outputs of strategies where these directly or indirectly convey a status deferential between speaker and addressee or referent. While humilifics on the other hand refers to words that downgrade the status of a person. Honorifics are used to express good gesture and politeness. Politeness is highly recommended and observed in many cultures of the world. Honorifics are linguistics forms that are used prototypically to expressed regard or esteem toward an entity worthy of respect, most typically a person of superior social standing. This word or phrase is occasionally used improperly to refer to an honorary title. It is also frequently confused with linguistic systems of honorific speech, which use morphology or grammar to encode speaker's relative social rank. Linguistic honorifics are used to portray ideal form, politeness, humility, social distance and respect through the usage of other markers such as a clitic, an affix, grammatical indicator, change in person or number, or other lexical item. Humilifics are words, acts or a material object that show the social debase of a person. They are also known as anti honorifics.

Content

Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson propounded the Politeness theory which centres on the notion of politeness being construed as efforts on redressing the affronts to a “person's self-esteem or effectively claiming positive social values in social interaction”. This theory has become very influential in many cultures thereby gaining universal applicability. This theory is adopted in this research to portray that honorifics are used to express good gesture and respect thereby enhancing human value. Honorific manifests in different forms such as verbal, non verbal and material. They are all used to express respect to people of different status in the society. Honorifics are intentional or conscious acts which are used at different occasions or events in Ibibio to impose positive social values on a person in social interactions. Humilific on the other hand, are acts or/and material objects that show the social debase of a person. They are also known as anti honorifics.. The politeness theory adopted here does not explain the implications of humilific but the Ibibio society frowns at any form or act that is meant to debase anyone in the society. The Ibibio people believe that a person's self worth is boosted when the right honour is accorded to him/her thereby making the application of humilific a rare phenomenon.

Conclusion

From the findings, verbal honorifics are commonly used to show an individual social class, as part of the socio-cultural norms that are operated and valued in the Ibibio community, while humilifics signify the debased attribute accorded a person in the society, verbal and gestural humilifics are used to humiliate and ridicule an individual in Ibibio community. Material honorifics in the form of apparels and ornaments depict a person societal position. This research agrees that different types of honorifics and humilifics depict different meaning in the Ibibio community. It therefore, recommends further study on honorifics and humilifics in other indigenous languages. It also encourages the use of right honorifics when and where appropriate while eschewing actions that promote the use of humilifics in Ibibio.

References

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ikima, M. N. (2016). Politeness strategic: A descriptive analysis of address terms in Tiv. In Essays in language and literature: A festschrift in honour of Prof. Kanchana Ughabe (pp. xx-xx). Jos: Prudent Universal Press and Publishing Co. Halliday, M. (2003). On language and linguistics. London: A&C Black. Leech, G. (1983). The principle of pragmatics. London: Longman Group. Ugorji, N. F. (2022). Honorifics and humilifics in Ngwa-Igbo: A socio-semantic analysis. Journal of the Nigerian Languages Project, 4, xx-xx.

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Poverty, Insecurity and Sustainable Development Goal 2030 Agenda in Nigeria: The Role of Creative Art Education

By: Tina Chidi Iloekwe
Email: chiditina34@yahoo.com

Tel: 08035997171

Abstract

The 2030 Agenda advocates for global security, poverty eradication and sustainable development as well as a universal plan of action to transform the world by 2030. In this direction, Creative Art education through skill acquisition has the potentials to stem the tide of the problems in the country. The aim of this paper is to examine Creative Art Education as a useful plan of action for achievement of education goals of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development in Nigeria. Creative Art education is a discipline that strives to educate individual or group with skill knowledge for job opportunities. It contributes immensely to the promotion of human resources through skill creation for job opportunities. In as much as great importance of Creative art education for humanities, it still faced some challenges (wrong method of theoretical teaching, lack of teacher, lack of infrastructures, poor payment of salary, etc) in education system. Therefore, the paper adopted exploratory and descriptive methods. Exploratory is used to review related existing literature on textbooks, internet, academic journals, and magazines. Descriptive is used to write down detailed information of the paper that embodied strategies and approaches for Art teachers and students in Nigerian schools for effective teaching and learning of creative skills in Art education. Recommendations are made and one among others is that teachers should endeavor to go deep into practical method of teaching for easy and effective transfer of knowledge of creative art skills in learning in order to ensure 2030 education goal for sustainable development.

Keywords

Agenda, Creative-art education, Skill acquisition, Sustainable development.

Introduction

Burston and Frie (2006) considered creative skill as one of the major factors necessary to develop students with gifted creative knowledge or talents. Creativity is not a privilege of a particular culture or civilization, but a special gift of nature for creative imagination. According to Sicker-voiget (2000), creativity is the ability to develop and improve existing or proposed hidden skills for people's benefit. In the time past, it was difficult for students to understand the hidden creative skills in them, but, in the modern-day reality, the positive interest on skill acquisition has made it possible for some dedicated creative students to come up with ideas and interest on creative skill study (Orange, 2009)...

Content

Education equips learners with a sense of purpose, competencies needed to shape lives and contribute to the lives of others. In order to achieve the above questions on developmental instability eroding in the countries on the world, United Nation (UN) launched a learning framework for “Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030 Agenda”. This aims at mobilizing all countries and partners around the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on education. The learning framework provided opportunities for ways of implementing, coordinating, financing and monitoring SDGs-Education 2030 to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education for long life learning opportunities for all...

Conclusion

Based on the discussions so far, it confirmed that sustainable development involves skills of increasing complexity. It has been seen that human creative skill is diverse, complex and multifaceted which requires the coordination of multiple cognitive processes. It is also believed that creative skill acquisition will be of great positive impact in other educational professional disciplines through the use of charts, demonstration, even other approaches for proper teaching and learning process. The aim is to encourage the best approach in developing Creative Skill Art Education in teaching and learning process to be used in all for spheres of education in Nigeria, in order to meet up with desired goal in education for sustainable development in 2030 Agenda.

References

Abadzi, H. (2015). Training the 21st-century worker: Policy advice from the dark network of implicit memory. IBE Working Papers on Curriculum Issues, 16. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002355/235521e.pdf (Accessed: 18/12/2017). Bell, D. (2016). Twenty-first century education: Transformative education for sustainability and responsible citizenship. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 18(1), 48–56. Brundtland Commission. (2019). Sustainable development 2019 international institute for sustainable development. Retrieved from www.iisd.org/ (Accessed: 25/8/2022). Barbour, S. C. (2016). A study of searching methods to enhance creativity and critical thinking in graphic design. (Master's thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA). Burston, D., & Frie, R. (2006). Psychotherapy as a human science. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press. Craft, A., Jeffrey, B., & Liebling, M. (2001). Creativity in education. London: Biddles. Ede, A. (2016). Impact of reliable built structures in driving the sustainable development goals: A look at Nigerian building structures. CU-ICADI International Conference on African Development Issues, May 9–11, 2016, Ota, Nigeria. Ewing, R. (2011). The arts and Australian education: Realising potential. Australian Council for Educational Research. Retrieved from https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer (Accessed: 7/10/2020). Freedman, K., & Stuhr, P. (2004). Curriculum change for the 21st century: Visual culture in art education. In E. Eisner & M. Day (Eds.), Handbook of research and policy in art education (pp. 815–828). The National Art Education Association. Frie, R. (2003). Understanding experience: Psychotherapy and postmodernism. London: Routledge. Gallagher, S. (2005). How the body shapes the mind. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Gladwell, M. (2014). Outliers: The story of success. New York: Little, Brown Press. Hutchens, J., & Pankratz, D. B. (2000). Change in arts education: Transforming education through the arts challenge (TETAC). Arts Education Policy Review, 101(4), 5–10. Inwood, H. (2010). Shades of green: Growing environmentalism through art education. Art Education, 63(6), 33–38. Kim, H. (2015). Community and art: Creative education fostering resilience through art. Asia Pacific Education Review, 16(2), 193–201. Larraz, N. (2015). Creativity and meta-cognitive thinking skills development in secondary school. Madrid: Dykinson. Larraz, N., Antoñanzas, J. L., & Cuevas, J. (2020). Creativity skills in undergraduate primary education students. OPPICS 2019. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences. DOI: 10.15405/epsbs.2020.05.11 Mayo, S. (2007). Implications for art education in the third millennium: Art technology integration. Art Education, 60(3), 45–51. Meyer, T. (2017). Next art education: Eight theses future art educators should think about. International Journal of Education through Art, 13(3), 369–384. OECD. (2018). The future of education and skills. Retrieved from Contact@cfcopies.com (Accessed: 27/8/2022). Orange, D. (2009). Psychoanalysis in a phenomenological spirit. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Self-Psychology, 4, 119-121. Torre, S. Y., & Violant, V. (2002). Creative strategies in university teaching: A research with development methodology. Creativity and Society, 3, 21-38. Rieckmann, M. (2018). Learning to transform the world: Key competencies in ESD. In A. Leicht, J. Heiss, & W. Byun (Eds.), Issues and trends in education for sustainable development. UNESCO. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000261802 (Accessed: 7/10/2020). Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2003). Key competences for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Hogrefe & Huber Publishing. Sickler-Voigt, D. C. (2020). Teaching and learning in art education: Cultivating students' potential from pre-K through high school. Routledge. Simberg, A. L. (2018). Training creative thinking. New York: Rinehart and Winston. Slavich, G. M., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2012). Transformational teaching: Theoretical underpinnings. Basic principles, and core methods. Educational Psychology Review, 24(4), 569–608. UNESCO. (2017). Education for sustainable development goals: Learning objectives. UNESCO, France. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002474/247444e.pdf (Accessed: 7/10/2020). UN General Assembly. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development, A/RES/70/1. Retrieved from https://www.refworld.org/docid/57b6e3e44.html (Accessed: 7/10/2020). Walling, D. R. (2006). Brainstorming themes that connect art and ideas across the curriculum. Art Education, 59(1), 18–24. Wuttke, E., & Seifried, J. (2017). Modelling and measurement of teacher competence: Old wine in new skins? In M. Mulder (Ed.), Competence-based vocational and professional education (pp. 883–901). Springer.

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Impact of British Currency In Colonial Annang Society, Calabar Province, Nigeria, 1900-1960

By: Emmanuel Toby
Email: emmanuel.toby@uniben.edu

Tel: 09059866366

Abstract

The major task of this paper is to examine the introduction of British currency in colonial Annang society and how the currency was used to exploit the resources of the people during the said period. The introduction of modern currency during the colonial period helped to transformed the economy of Annang from subsistence level to a market oriented one, Trade between the Annangs and European in palm produce such as palm oil and palm kernel would not have been possible, but for improvement in the pre-colonial currency by the colonial authorities. The study interrogated how the currency was used to promote British economic exploitation of Annang during the colonial period. It adopted the historical method, relying extensively on primary information obtained from oral interviews and archival sources. The study finds that the introduction of British currency in Annang was a means to an end contrary to the colonial belief that the introduction of the British currency was meant to develop the Annang economy. The machinery of the colonial government was used to create modern currency facilities considered essential to the successful and profitable of British economic interest in Annang.

Keywords

Impact, British, Currency, Colonial, Annang, Society, Calabar, Province

Introduction

Annang people occupy the North-Western part of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria which lies 0 0 0 within the Cross River Basin, between latitudes 40 .25' and 70 North and longitudes 70 .15' 0 and 90 .30' East (Messenger, 1959). Pre-colonial Annang was made up of thirty-five clans (Aduk) (Ekong, 1983). Each of these had its own independent political institutions headed by a clan head (Okuku). Therefore, there were thirty five clan heads in Annang. During the colonial period, the Annang were majorly found in Ikot Ekpene and Abak Division in Calabar Province, with some other sub-set occupying 150 square miles in the north of Opobo Division in Rivers Province. These communities had a cultural bond and they all looked up to Afaha Obong where the Annang supreme deity was situated as their place of origin and traditional headquarters (Essien, 2013).To the North, Annang is bounded by lni and Ikono Local Government Areas and to the South by Ikot Abasi Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To the West, Annang is bounded by Ngwa and Azumini communities of Abiastate and Ndoki community of Rivers State, and to the East, by Uyo and Mkpatenin Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State. Geographically, Annang lies almost entirely in the rain forest belt of Southern Nigeria. The area has a level landscape, covered by relatively low vegetation and myriad of palms. There is a mean annual rainfall of 2.030-2,540mm. Annang has a tropical climate with wet and dry seasons (Udo, 1970). The wet season spans from March to October when the monsoon winds blow from the South-West, while the dry season spans from November to February when the harmattan (ekarika) blows from the North-East. The landscape is generally flat and low-lying, with no point rising above 300ft and no part less than 100ft feet above sea level. It has a level landscape covered by relatively low vegetation and numerous palm trees. At present, Annang with a population of more than one million people is the second largest ethnic group in Akwa Ibom State. The Annangs are found in eight of the present thirty-one Local Government Areas in Akwa Ibom State, namely; Abak, Essien Udim, Etim Ekpo, Ika, Ikot Ekpene, Obot Akara, Oruk Anam and Ukanafun; yet they are culturally homogenous.

Content

The economic exchange among human groups across the world is the function of the necessities of the insatiability of human wants, subjecting man to numerous forms of exchanges and trade. These exchanges and trade across the history are the factors, which informed the adoption of money of different kinds as means of exchange (Odior and Banuso, 2012; Achor and Robert, 2013). Various medium of exchanged were used in various Annang markets and trade centres before the imposition of colonial rule in the area. They helped to facilitate trade and exchange of goods and services in various forms and dimensions. The first major means of exchange among the Annang people was the barter system which involved the exchange of some quantities of one type of commodity with an acceptable quantity of another commodity. It is a form of exchange in which goods are exchanged for goods making it imperative, that exchange will only take place when the commodities to be exchanged had been accepted by the individuals involved ( Ikuseedun, 2006). Conducting an economic transaction in barter economies involved high transaction costs as considerable time and effort were required in finding a suitable partner (Odior and Banuso, 2012). However, with the increased in the volume of trade and expansion of the Annang economy due to the exchange rate and this made the barter system obsolete (Ikpe, 1992). With the major weakness of the barter system, particularly the double coincidence of wants (Afigbo, 1987), there was the need for a new means of exchange of goods which could enhance trade among the people. Beyond resolving problems of a barter system, another aspect in the evolution of money was the need for divisibility (Ajayi and Ojo, 2006).

Conclusion

The paper has shown that pre-colonial production was mostly aimed at satisfying personal needs. However, the idea of production for absolute subsistence is not very correct as evidence abound in favour of a surplus in production for exchange. The various currencies in the pre-colonial period facilitated the exchange of goods and services in pre-colonial Annang. The first means of exchange among the people was the barter system where, for example, some quantities of goods were exchanged for some other quantities of other items. But the problem of the double coincidence of wants which was a major weakness of trade by barter naturally led to the evolution of other means of exchange such as the piece of cloth and salt. Again, with increased in trade among the people and their neighbours, the commodity currency was not capable of coping with the volume of transaction between the people. Consequently, there was the need for the introduction of other means of exchange such as cowries, manila, brass rods, copper and iron money that would suffice for the level of the transaction of trade. This paper has focussed on the changes and evolution of modern currency during the colonial period which helped to transform the economy of Annang. The advent of British Pound Sterling marked a watershed in the economic history of Annang during the colonial period. It marked the transition of the area from a pre-colonial subsistence economy to monetised and a dynamic market-oriented one.

References

Achor, P. N., & Robert, A. (2013). Shifting policy paradigm from cash-based economy to cashless economy: The Nigeria experience. Afro-Asian Journal of Social Science, 4(4). Afigbo, A. E. (1987). The Igbo and their neighbours. Ibadan: University Press. Ake, C. (1981). A political economy of Africa. New York: Longman Inc. Aghalino, S. O., & Eyinla, B. (2008). Oil exploitation and marine pollution: Evidence from the Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 28(3). Ajayi, S. I. O., & Ojo, O. O. (2006). Money and banking: Analysis and policy in the Nigerian context. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(2). Aston-Smith, W. E. (1904). ABAKDIST13/3/5, Manilla currency in Abak and Opobo. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Chapman, G. B. G. (1935). ABAKDIST1/3/5, Manilla withdrawal in Calabar Province. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Chukwu, D. O. (2010). Trends and changes in the Nigerian currency system, colonial period-2008. Studies of Tribes and Tribals, 8(2). Curwen, R. J. M. (1932). ABAKDIST1/3/5, Manilla withdrawal in Calabar Province. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Dewhurst, J. V. (1949). ABAKDIST1/3/5, Manilla withdrawal in Calabar Province. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Ekong, E. E. (1983). Sociology of Ibibio: A study of social organisation and change. Uyo: Morden Business Press Ltd. Essien, E. S. (2013). Annang philosophy: Foundation and outline. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 13(11). Fry, R. (1976). Bankers in West Africa: The story of the Bank of British West Africa Limited. London: Hutchinson Ltd. Hanitsch, K. V. (1919). OPODIST 1/1/2, Manilla currency in Abak and Opobo. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Ikpe, E. B. (1992). Pre-colonial African merchants. Tarikh, 10. Ikuseedun, A. (2006). Promoting the use of coins in Nigeria. Bullion, 30(4). Kirk-Greene, A. H. (1960). The major currencies in Nigerian history. Historical Society of Nigeria, 2(1). Latham, A. J. H. (1971). Currency, credit and capitalism on the Cross River in the pre-colonial era. International Journal of Political Economy, 27(1). Lawal, A. A. (1999). Transition from the traditional to modern currency system in West Africa. In G. O. Ogunremi & E. K. Faluyi (Eds.), Economic history of West Africa. Marshall, H. H. (1913). CSE1/86/20, Native council rules in East and Central Province. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Messenger, J. C. (1959). Religious acculturation among the Annang and Ibibio. In M. J. Herskovits & W. R. Bascom (Eds.), Continuity and change in African cultures. Chicago: Chicago Press. Odior, E. S., & Banuso, F. B. (2012). Cashless banking in Nigeria: Challenges, benefits and policy implications. European Scientific Journal, 8(2). Ofonagoro, W. I. (1979a). Trade and imperialism in Southern Nigeria, 1881-1929. Ofonagoro, W. I. (1979b). From traditional to British currency in Southern Nigeria: Analysis of a currency revolution, 1880-1948. Olanrewaju, S. A. (1987). The infrastructure of exploitation: Transport, monetary changes, banking, etc. In Britain and Nigeria: Exploitation or development. Spence, W. D. (1921). CSE1/85/6983, Manilla currency. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Spence, W. D. (1936). CALPROF 4/9/63, Silver currency-supply to Ikot Ekpene District. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria. Thompson, C. P. (1934). CSO202/7504, Intelligence report on the Ukana Group, Ikot Ekpene. National Archives, Enugu, Nigeria.

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Belligerent Utopianism in The Poetry of Idris Amali and Romanus Egudu

By: Clement Eloghosa Odia
Email: clement.odia@uniben.edu

Tel: 07034571337

Abstract

Postcolonial utopianism thrives on belligerent poetic art in articulating the resentment and anger of the people towards hegemonic powers which hinder the emancipatory strides to freedom while at the same time, pushing for the attainment of an ideal society. This paper explores the interface between postcolonial utopian dynamics and the artistic portrayal of violent activism. Put differently, it hopes to show how the revolutionary vision of recent Nigerian poets are expressed in utopian conscious poems. Through textual analytic praxis and postcolonial utopian theoretical approach, the researcher identifies the following findings: Firstly, that revolution is key to utopian imagination, secondly, that the poets employ diverse poetic images to depict the need for freedom and finally, that provocative language is used to sensitise the people to engage in violence and combat their enslavers. The paper concludes that the poets (Idris Amali and Romanus Egudu) use two strategies of revolution, such as social mobilization and direct physical engagement while depending on belligerent art such as provocative language, defiant imagery and tone of revolt to convey their vision of utopian society.

Keywords

Postcolonial Utopianism, Belligerence, Art, Social Mobilization, Direct physical engagement and Revolution.

Introduction

Recent Nigerian poetry exhibits the character and temper of belligerent utopian consciousness. Belligerent utopianism refers to an ideal society established through a revolution or some form of violence. In poetry of belligerent utopianism there abounds defiant words, combative imagery, angry tone and provocative language which urge and provoke the people to engage in revolt against any system which constrains the attainment of a new social reality. In a nutshell, belligerent utopian poetry anchors on social change through militancy. Therefore, the poems are written to incite, denounce and evoke the sense of bellicosity in order to actualise an ideal social order. For this reason, the poets enrich their poems with hostile poetics contrived to annoy, mobilise and rouse the people to direct physical engagement with retrogressive forces militating against the attainment of a better society. Belligerent utopianism combines the memory of the past and the vision of the present with all its imperfections to anticipate the building of a better society. This brand of utopianism is triggered by revolt or violent activism. It has as its utilitarian value, the rebuilding of a dystopian state or society. This paper seeks to establish, among other things, that the general principle guiding the labeling or categorization of utopianism is essentially linked to the method of achieving utopia or building a better society. Hence, when the poets propose belligerence or revolution as a method of building a utopian society, it is called belligerent utopianism or utopianism of combat.

Content

This paper focuses on the poems of two poets carefully selected to reflect the regional diversity of Nigeria. These poets include Idris Amali from the North and Romanus Egudu from the South. The analysis of the poems derive from the poetry collections of the above poets, namely Amali's Efeega: War of Arts and Egudu's Prayer of the Powerless which are henceforth abbreviated as EWAand POPrespectively. The theory underpinning this essay is postcolonial utopianism. Jacqueline Dutton writes that utopianism involves “social ideals within an explicitly utopian vision for improving the life of indigenous people” (249). This implies that utopianism entails articulating social ideals which are meant for improving society. Accordingly, writers who engage in utopianism are providing ideals or dreams with the aim of inspiring members of society to seeing beyond the pain, frustration and disappointment of the present to embracing the reality of utopian change. Thus the dreams are the ideals which when imbibed will bring about new social order. Tom Moylan introduces the subversive dimension to utopianism. According to the researcher, an alternative utopian vision began to be muted in the middle of the 1800s. This period coincided with the inclusion of revolution in utopian studies. Thus utopianism in Moylan's view “tended to adopt a stance more concerned with teaching and exposing the reader to the still unrealised potential of the human project of consciously being in the world…” (6). The purpose of the revolutionary element in the utopian literature is to articulate a coherent portraiture of the deficiencies in human world and to point the reader to how the alternative socio-political agenda can be realized. Hence, Moylan adds that political education is pivotal to this endeavour: “the heuristic utopia offered a strength of vision that sought to subvert or at least reform the modern economic and political arrangement from within” (6). This method takes the form of social mobilization for mass action. The duty of the writer in the utopian cosmology is to teach the masses the necessity of utopian change. Moylan seems to posit that subversion is vital to the attainment of the utopian goal of building an ideal society. Bill Ashcroft has...

Conclusion

The basic interest of this paper remains to express the dynamics of belligerent utopianism in the poems of Amali and Egudu. Although their poetic imagination may have diverse purpose and orientation, they however focus on the same idea, that is, the idea of a better society achievable through violent activism. Their poems instigate the readers to embrace a new set of values through deliberate social mobilization. Poem after poem, these two poets employ provocative imagery and defiant tone to call for direct physical engagement with those who hinder the people from attaining a utopian country. The main point that postcolonial utopian poets make with their poems is that once the people can be mobilized revolution or utopian change can be achieved. The artistic use of aggressive language and the creation of mental pictures that suggest violence engender social mobilization and direct physical engagement which are methods of achieving utopian change. The vision of a better future anchored on a re-shaped society after revolution demonstrates that utopian change is possible when the people take action and accept responsibility. The adaptation of utopianism to the Nigerian context through the study of Nigerian poetry expands the frontiers of postcolonial utopian studies.

References

Amali, I. (2014). EFEEGA: War of Arts. Kraft Books. Ashcroft, B. (2009). Beyond the nation: Post-colonial hope. The Journal of the European Association of Studies in Australia, 1, 12-22. Ashcroft, B. (2012). Introduction: Spaces of Uutopia. Spaces of Utopia: An Electronic Journal, 11(2), 1-17. Ashcroft, B. (2013). Resolution, transformation and utopia: The function of literature. In J. Haldane (Ed.), IAFOR Publications. Basso, F., & Krpan, D. (2022). Measuring the transformative utopian impulse for planetary health in the age of the Anthropocene: A multi-study scale development and validation. The Lancet Planetary Health, 6(3). Dutton, J. (2010). Non-Western' utopian traditions. In The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature (pp. 24-68). Cambridge University Press. Egudu, R. (2002). Prayer of the Powerless. Fourth Dimension Publishing. Hardy, K. (2015). Unsetting hope: Settler colonialism and utopianism (PhD Dissertation). Kingston University. Ingerlab, M., & Paniotova, T. (2019). Utopias as social psychotherapy. APPSCONF, 72, 1-5. Moylan, T. (1986). Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination. Methuen. Prince, R. (2022). Curious utopias: Dreaming big again in the twenty-first century? Social Anthropology, 30(2), 1-18. Riberg, A. (2022). Disrupting the present and opening the future: Extinction Rebellion, Fridays for Future, and the disruptive utopian method. Utopian Studies, 33(1), 15-32.

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An Examination of Levinas's Notion of Responsibility and Human situation in Nigeria

By: Idorenyin Francis Esikot
Email: access.esikot @gmail.com

Tel: 08064772258

Abstract

Human situation refers to the salient conditions of daily human existence including its economic and social states among others. These conditions are vital to human welfare and vary from one country to another. In Nigeria, the human condition is characterized by hardship and suffering due to incommensurate government response to the welfare needs of the citizens as well as inadequate assistance to the poor class by the wealthy citizens. If this condition is not checked, the human condition in Nigeria will aggravate the already bad situation and as well as deepen the different kinds of unrests. In response to the need to address this deplorable and problematic human situation, Levinas' notion of responsibility serves as a plausible theoretical framework. This paper interrogated the human situation in Nigeria vis-à-vis Levinas' conception of responsibility. It used the qualitative method of critical analyses to solicit hospitality towards the poor class. The paper found out that Levinas' notion of responsibility is the apt theory for addressing the deplorable human situation in Nigeria. Since Nigeria is made up of people of different economic and social classes, the paper recommended that the political leaders and the wealthy class should show appropriate responsibility to the poor class by helping them to provide for their welfare needs for improved human situation.

Keywords

Levinas, Responsibility, Human, Situation, solidarity, Nigeria

Introduction

Human beings are faced with different situations and predicaments in life, one of which is suffering. In most constituted nations, the primary obligation of government is to ensure human welfare and to protect lives and properties. Adherence to this obligation impacts the human situation in the respective nation. Furthermore, Non-Governmental Organizations and private individuals also impact society. Since society is also a social construct, there exists social and economic classes which are of unequal capacities but must coexist. Their coexistence reveals the strength and weakness of each in coping with the realities of their daily lives. Those in the wealthy class can afford their daily needs but the poor cannot. In this scenario, the wealthy are looked up to for assistance by the poor ones. The assistance in question underscores Levinas' intuition in his notion of responsibility

Content

In Emmanuel Levinas's notion of responsibility, the wealthy and powerful, are refer to as the “subject /I”; the poor and weak ones, are called the “Other”. Levinas's notion of responsibility does not bear out the ordinary meaning. Thus, by responsibility, he means that everyone is made to serve the Other and that one's life is meaningful in his service for the Other. Specifically, he avers that “I speak of responsibility as the essential, primary and fundamental structure of subjectivity…I understand responsibility as responsibility for the Other, thus as responsibility for what is not my deed” (Levinas, 1985: 95). On this Levinas's thought, Sean Hand comments: “His post rational ethics stands as the ultimate and exemplary challenge to the solitude of Being, a rigorous testimony of one's infinite obligation to the other person” (1989: v). Hand eulogizes Levinas's novelty in constructing heteronomous ethics of solidarity for the otherness. Against the idea that one is alone, Levinas demonstrates that we are for one another. Being so passionate with and being responsible for everyone, “we are all guilty of all and for all men before all, and I more than the others” (Dostoyevsky, 1954: 264), becomes one of Levinas's favorite quotes. This quote can be re-rendered as 'we are all responsible for everyone, but I am more responsible than all others'. This quote already points to the trajectory of Levinas's notion of responsibility. Man is a being whose responsibility for the welfare of the Other existed before him and goes beyond his personal affairs. It is in this sense that Levinas defines responding subject as always available and sufficient to answer to everyone and in everything, and responsibility as that which is natural to human being. Levinas's notion of responsibility is an advocacy for a better human situation. The human situation in Nigeria could be described in the Heideggerian “thrownness”. This explains that Nigerians are seemingly left to their fate because of the current realities. There is a wide divide between the class of I/subject and Other. Everyone that could be likened as the I/subject seems to be in his comfortable zone and minding less of what becomes of the Other. This experience descends from the highest echelon of government to the lowest. Institutions and government agencies are not left out. Private individuals also seem to care less about the poor masses. A close investigation reveals the absence of responsibility as Levinas espouses. This paper reveals and argues that Levinas's notion of responsibility is a clarion call for hospitality and solidarity to the “Other” class by those in the “I/subject” class.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Communication in a Global Workplace:Issues and Challenges

By: Nevelyn William Batta
Email: nevelynbatta@uniuyo.edu.ng

Tel: +2348026565261

Abstract

The paper highlighted the role of communication in the growth of the global workplace and revealed many benefits of the global workforce among which are fostering deeper connections among customers and employees, leveraging on cultural differences to better understand customers in countries outside an organization's core business. It also brought to bear pertinent issues such as the need to effectively incorporate communication technologies, address cultural diversity as well as adopt effective cross-cultural communication styles. Challenges that workers in the global workplace grapple with such as stereotypical perceptions, language barriers, technological dependencies, and limited face-to-face interactions were also identified in the paper. Consequently, the paper advocated the need to be well equipped with communication skills such as defining clear roles and responsibilities, establishing clear channels of communication as well as leveraging technology to surmount these challenges and survive in the multicultural global workplace. The paper adopted the Communication Accommodation Theory which emphasizes the tendency of humans to adjust their behavior while interacting (communicating).

Keywords

Global workforce, Communication, Globalization, Cultural Diversity, Organizational communication

Introduction

When in (1998) Townsend and his colleagues wrote on Virtual Teams: Technology and the Workplace of the Future, they were foretelling the global workplace. According to them, a group of technologies including desktop, video conferencing, collaborative software, and internet/intranet systems will converge to forge the foundation of a new workplace. This new workplace will be unrestrained by geography, time, and organizational boundaries; it will be a virtual workplace where productivity, flexibility, and collaboration will reach unprecedented levels. The global workforce is becoming increasingly prevalent due to this potential.

Content

There is no gain saying the fact that global workspaces are brought about by globalization. Globalization is described by Tomlinson (1997) cited in Miller (2006) as the rapidly developing processes of complex connections between societies, cultures, institutions, and individuals. Changes in business practices, development of modernization programs to help meet new challenges, and liberalization of markets, are in Miller's (2006) view, the outcomes of globalization. Further, the nature of work has undergone a transformative shift, transcending geographical boundaries and cultural landscapes. The advent of a global workspace has brought about a paradigmatic change in the way communication is perceived and practiced within organizations. As the multifaceted realm of organizational communication is considered, the scholarly works of Antos (2011), Cheney (2011), and Keyton (2010, 2011) provide a rich foundation for understanding the intricacies of interpersonal dynamics, the impact of globalization, and the role of communication in shaping an organizational culture of the global workspace. Moreover, the organizational communication landscape within a global framework is intricately discussed by scholars such as Cheney (2011) and Canary (2011). The issues and reflections presented in these works shed light on the evolving nature of communication structures and practices, emphasizing the need for adaptability and a nuanced understanding of cultural contexts. Keyton's (2010, 2011) invaluable insights, presented in case studies and discussions on organizational culture, offer a lens through which we can examine real-world scenarios and their implications for communication strategies in a global workspace. As we navigate the complexities of modern organizational dynamics, Keyton's work becomes an essential resource for unraveling the multifaceted interplay between communication practices and the development of organizational culture.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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An Assessment of The Metacognitive Strategies Among Igbo-English Students in Umuahia, Abia State

By: Ngozi Ijeoma Ugo-Ochulo
Email: ngoziochulo@gmail.com

Tel: +2348034770639

Abstract

This research examines the metacognitive learning strategies of SS2 students in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, studying English as a second language. The study assessed the strategies the students employed in planning their English learning activities in advance, setting academic goals and arranging the appropriate conditions for second language learning. It also investigated the strategies the students used to improve their performance in English. The Theoretical Framework applied is the Communicative Language Teaching Theory. Three secondary schools selected from the three Local Government Areas in Umuahia, respectively, are used for the study. An adapted form of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, version 7.0), developed by Oxford (1990) is used in eliciting data. The adapted measurement tool has four-point likert scale as follows: Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). It is a self-reporting, standardized questionnaire for language learning strategies. Asample size of 120 respondents was used for the research. In addition to the questionnaire, the respondents were made to write an essay entitled “what I do before, during and after an English lesson”. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively. The essay writing was content-analyzed and the results were put in percentages and pie charts for better pictorial representation. The results from the questionnaire indicated that the respondents have high metacognitive learning strategies. However, the results from the essay writing revealed generally low metacognitive learning strategies. If both results are placed side by side, one may conclude that the metacognitive strategies of the students are average. Another discovery the study made is that some of the students do not take down notes as their English lesson goes on and they do not also have personal reading timetable. The study recommends the teaching of metacognitive strategies to the students, especially note taking and making for effective learning.

Keywords

Assessment, Language, Learning, Strategies, Metacognition, Igbo, English, Materials

Introduction

As a result of the British colonization of Nigeria, English became a second and official language in the country. Also, because of the multiplicity of languages and ethnic groups, English was adopted as a Lingua Franca. English has “become the major medium for interethnic communication, Government, political activities, advertising industries, constitution, National Assembly, law courts, examinations and post primary education, among others” (Essien, 2017, p.65).

Content

English is the medium of impacting knowledge in most primary schools, especially private schools, as well as a core subject in both primary and secondary schools. Students need to have a credit pass in English to be admitted to study most courses in Nigerian Universities. Hence, there is the need to learn English. Students need to devise different learning strategies to self-direct their learning of English. Language learning strategies are “the deliberate acts or activities which learners employ to learn language” (Ugorji, 2020, p. 90). There are various steps or techniques which help learners to learn, store and retrieve language information when needed. Learners take those conscious steps to improve their performance in English. As a matter of fact, language learning strategies are as a result of the paradigm shift from teacher and teaching to learner and learning, targeted at learner autonomy. Learner – autonomy has to do with “coordinating various strategies to assist learners to become highly motivated and effective learners and users of knowledge” (Ugorji, 2020, pp.90-91). In essence, learners take responsibility for their learning. Oxford (1990) categorized learning strategies into six. They are memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective and social strategies. Oxford further classified the first three strategies as direct strategies because they directly involve the target language and the last three as indirect strategies because they play supportive role in language learning. The focus of this paper is on metacognitive strategies because they appear to be the foundation on which other strategies operate...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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A Historical Survey of Playwriting by Women in Nigeria

By: Augustine Obiajulu Eziechine
Email: augustine.eziechine@unidel.edu.ng

Abstract

This paper examines the development of playwriting in Nigeria since its inception in the 1950s. The study is basically a survey of the works of some Nigerian female playwrights such as Zulu Solofa, Tess Onwueme, Irene Isoken Agunloye, Julie Okoh, Tracie UtohEzeajugh and Stella Oyedepo. Content analysis of their works, particularly those of the new generation playwrights were made. The findings reveal that Nigerian female playwrights are seriously committed to using their plays as a means of addressing some of the issues affecting women in Nigeria. The paper concludes that drama has remained an effective tool for sensitizing the society on various social issues, and Nigerian female dramatists are wielding this powerful tool for women empowerment and the development of the Nigerian society.

Keywords

Literary Drama, Female Playwrights, Women, Gender Issues, Playwriting, Liberation.

Introduction

Playwriting in Nigeria began in the early 1950s with the publication of This is Our Chance (1956) by Ene Henshaw, the first notable playwright in Nigeria to write in English. The play This is our Chance, dwells on the issues of love, war and village hostility. Princess Kudaro of Koloro (Bambulu's student), and Prince Ndamu of the neighboring village of Udura, who should be inveterate enemies, have decided to elope to get married, an outcome of Bambulu's new ideas. This incident provokes a violent reaction in each village. Ajugo, the Chief Prime Minister stands for tradition and insists that Prince Ndamu (their captive) should be killed. Enusi, the junior Minister, an advocate of change opposes Ajugo. The contest takes the form of blind argument. The plot is however, given a complex touch, with the incident at Udura. The young son of Chief Mboli has been bitten by a snake and he lies in agony of death. Princess Kudaro who was also captured waiting to be killed in Udura has brought out Bambulu's snake antidote, which gives immediate relief. The villages discover the need to live in harmony with one another. Generally speaking, notable contemporary Nigerian playwrights include J.P Clark, Wole Soyinka, Ola Rotimi, Wale Ogunyemi, Zulu Sofola Bode Sowande, Femi Osofisan, Olu Obafemi among others.

Content

The period spanning between the early eighties and the present day witnessed a great harvest of new generation female playwrights in Nigeria. This period is again characterized by a very high wave of corruption, political instability and economic holocaust. During this period, Nigerian female playwrights attempted to address a myriad of issues including feminist issues. Some of these playwrights also highlighted traditional practices that are inimical to women. These female playwrights built on the solid foundation previously laid by Onwueme. Playwrights in this category include Stella Oyedepo, Julie Okoh, Irene Isoken Agunloye and Tracie Chima Utoh Ezeajugh. Like Onwueme, most of their works project women agenda. In the words of Methuselah (2010:157), “The theme of infidelity, betrayal and cultural suppression of women permeates their plays with women suffering the brunt of male oppression and suppression”...

Conclusion

From the foregoing overview of female playwriting enterprise in Nigeria, it has been established that Nigerian female playwrights use their plays to advance the course of women empowerment, and to sensitize the society on various social issues. They have written and published plays portraying issues that concern women thus unveiling their experiences as women. Tess Onwueme unveils the obnoxious cultural practices and patriarchal structures that are inimical to the well being of women. The third generation playwrights also referred to in this work as the new generation female playwrights include Stella Oyedepo, Julie Okoh, Irene-Isoken Agunloye,Tracie Utoh-Ezeajugh among others. Stella Oyedepo captures the ugly experience of child abuse and exploitation, which have become an enduring experience in Nigeria and other parts of the world in Alice, Oh! Alice. Julie Okoh in Edewede, exposes the agonizing experience of women who undergo the cultural practice of female genital mutilation. On the other hand,Irene Salami Agunloye's More Than Dancing and Tracie Utoh's Our Wives Have Gone Mad Again, showcase strong women characters who venture into the world of politics, an area that is known to be the exclusive preserve of men, and defeat their male rivals.

In More Than dancing, Nona Odaro displays the highest form of political astuteness and cunning that her male counterparts who underestimated her were left dazed after her unexpected victory. In Sweet Revenge, Salami revolutionalizes Aisosa, her heroine, who deals with Sota the husband when he abandons her. The play advocates for the involvement of women in the mainstream of affairs, thereby moving them from the margin to the centre. Tracy in Our Wives Have Gone Mad Again, also uses the most unconventional method to secure the presidential ticket. Given this extensive contribution of Nigerian female playwrights, the paper concludes that drama has remained an effective tool for sensitizing the society on various social issues, and Nigerian female dramatists are wielding this powerful tool in their struggle for women liberation as their contribution to women empowerment and general development of the Nigerian society.

References

Agunloye, I. I. (2001). Emotan: A Benin heroine. Jos: Mazlink. Agunloye, I. I. (2003). More than dancing. Jos: Saniez publication. Agunloye, I. I. (2004). Sweet revenge. Jos: Saniez publication. Agunloye, I. I. (2011). Challenging the masters' craft: Nigerian female playwrights in the theatre of men. Unijos Inaugural Lecture presented by Irene Isoken Agunloye on February 25, 1-65. Awuawuer, T. J. (2009). Negotiating gender equality and equity for women empowerment in the 21st century Nigeria: A critique of Irene Salami-Agunloye's More than dancing. In E. Idegu (Ed.), Feminist aesthetics and dramaturgy of Irene Salami Agunloye (pp. 335-355). Kaduna: TWPress and Publishers. Doki, G. (2006). Foremothers in history: A study of Irene-Salami's play. In I. Salami-Agunloye (Ed.), Women, theatre and politics: Contemporary perspectives (pp. 80-87). Ibadan: Saniez Publishers. Gbilekaa, E. T. S. (1997). Radical theatre in Nigeria. Ibadan: Caltop Publications. Henshaw, J. E. (2010). This is our chance. Ibadan: Bounty Press. Methuselah, J. (2010). Women playwrights and female imaging in Nigerian literary drama: An overview. Journal of the Nigeria English Studies Association (NESA), 13(2), 151-161. Nwanya, N. (2010). Gender balance and women empowerment in two Nigerian literary drama. Nigerian Theatre Journal: A Journal of the Society of Nigeria Theatre Artists, 10(1), 117-127. Nwanya, A. N., & Ojemudia, C. (2014). Gender and creativity: The contributions of Nigerian female writers. Global Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 2(9), 60-62. Ojukwu, G. E., & Utoh-Ezeajugh, T. (2021). Trends in women-centred engagements in the works of selected Nigerian playwrights. The Creative Artist: A Journal of Theatre and Media Studies, 15(1), 115-130. Okoh, J. E. (2000a). In the fullness of time. Owerri: Totan Publishers. Okoh, J. E. (2000b). Owerri: Totan Publishers. Okoh, J. E. (2006). The mannequins. Owerri: Totan Publishers. Okolo, G. (2008). Gender war: Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again versus Tracie Chima Utoh's Our wives have gone mad again. In I. Nwankwo, T. Utoh-Ezeajugh, & D. Tunca (Eds.), Professor Femi Osofisan International Conference on Performance Proceedings (pp. 171-177). Awka: Valid Publishers. Onwueme, T. (1983). A hen too soon. Owerri: Totan Publishers. Onwueme, T. (1984). The broken calabash. Owerri: Totan Publishers. Onwueme, T. (1988). The reign of Wazobia. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books. Osofisan, F. (nd). Once upon four robbers. Ibadan: Bio-Educational Services Ltd. Oyedepo, S. D. (2000). Alice, oh! Alice. Ilorin: Delstar Publishers. Oyedepo, S. D. (2002). The rebellion of the bumpy-chested. Ilorin: Delstar Publishers. Sofola, Z. (1972). Wedlock of the gods. Ibadan: Evans Brothers. Ukwen, R. (2015). On the contributions of Nigerian female dramatists to open access library journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses. Utoh-Ezeajugh, T. C. (2001). Our wives have gone mad again. Awka: Valid Publishing Co. Ltd. Utoh-Ezeajugh, T. C. (2005). Nneora, an African doll's house. Awka: Valid Publishing Co. Ltd.

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A Minimalist Account of Interrogative Word Movement in Ibibio

By: Emmanuel Akaninyene Okon
Email: emmanuelaokon@uniuyo.edu.ng

Tel: 08064658473

Abstract

This work presents a description of the minimalist account of interrogative word movement in the Ibibio language, a morphologically rich Lower Cross language of the Niger-Congo phylum spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The Ibibio language attests specific interrogative items for questioning human nouns, ànìé 'who', non-human nouns, nsòó/ǹtághà 'what/why', value and quantity, ìfáñ 'how much/many', time nsínì 'what time', places úké/mmọó 'where' and processes, dìé, 'how'. These question words which are base-generated within the VP are subsequently moved overtly or covertly to the SPEC-TP domain for case checking and SPEC- CP for focus. This work adopts Chomsky (1995) Minimalist Program (MP) framework to account for the movement of these words. As a feature driven model, the MP regards sentence derivation simply as the pairing of sound and meaning guided by economy principles of Shortest Move, Greed and procrastinate. Movement is understood to mean copy and delete. The work establishes that interrogative words move to different positions in overt syntax. It is observed that interrogative words which are base-generated within the VP Shell are overtly displaced for case activation for interrogative word subjects at the SPEC-TP. The study also observes that the movement of the interrogative words within the VPShell can be covert for interrogative objects. It therefore postulates that the LF raising of the interrogative word is covert for interrogative word objects. The work also reveals that object interrogative words can be moved to the left periphery of the sentence identified as I SPEC-C – a FOCUS Phrase. Once they are moved, they are obligatorily followed by the focus marker ké in the language and such leftward unbounded movement is for some prominence on the focused item.

Keywords

case, feature, interrogative, movement, left periphery

Introduction

Language is a complex and structured arbitrary vocal system in which words are merged for communication. It is the output of the cognitive process in which the stock of lexical items are minimally ordered for communication. Communication also includes question formation or posing a question for an answer. With the human mind as a language processor, it is assumed that lexical/phrasal elements/interrogative words are re-arranged to produce different questions or sentences. Interrogative words are words used in asking questions.

Content

Unlike the English language, interrogative words in Ibibio do not have the 'whs' beginning their questioning words at any instance, but they occupy the SPEC-TP in Ibibio and SPECCP for non-in-situ derivations in both languages. Under the minimalist view, movement of interrogative words can take place before and after the Spell-out. Movement operations which take place before and after the Spell-out are called overt and covert movements respectively. Olaogun (2016) observes that overt movement is feature movement in addition to pied-piping of the element that bears the features, while covert movement is limited to feature movement without pied-piping. Movement of interrogative phrases in the Ibibio language is both overt and covert . The Ibibio language makes a distinction between two kinds of questions. One is a question which requires a Yes-No answer, while the other does not require a Yes-No answer. According to Essien (1990), the latter kind of question is referred to as wh-questions in the sense that the equivalent question words in English contain 'wh' except how. In the Ibibio language, question words do not contain 'wh'. Though this work identifies interrogative words, but it uses the term wh-movement to characterise the process of movement. Therefore, wh-movement is an attested phenomenon in the language. Ibibio displays two patterns with respect to the position of wh-words in overt syntax. The two patterns include wh-in-situ for the subject and the object positions (in which the interrogative word is basegenerated) and non-in-situ (in which the interrogative word is optionally moved). However, the syntactic behaviour of interrogative words in this language displays three possibilities and each of them is both grammatical and acceptable in the language

Conclusion

This study is based on the tenets of Chomsky's (1995) grammatical model, the Minimalist Program. The predicate Internal Subject Hypothesis (PISH), one of the tenets of MPassumes that the subject of a clause originates from the VPShell. In relation to this study, it is observed that the interrogative word subject is base-generated within the VPand is subsequently raised to the SPEC-TP where its nominative case feature can be checked. The checking operation that is licensed by movement is the elimination of the [-interpretable] formal features. The study equally observed that within VP Shell, the movement of the interrogative word object is covert where the accusative case feature is checked within the merge condition. On the other hand, an interrogative word can be displaced from a motivated case object position to a position of focus. This position is not within the minimal clause. This type of interrogative word movement is described as a leftward unbounded movement. From the above, it is observed that the Ibibio interrogative words can be found at the subject and object positions of the sentence as well as at the inter-clausal domain where is preposed to the left periphery.

References

Abney, S. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect (Ph.D. Dissertation). MIT. Aboh, E., & Pfau, R. (2011). What's wh-word got to do with it? The cartography of syntactic structures. In B. Pola (Ed.), New York: Oxford University Press. Akpan, E. (2021). Determiner phrase in Ibibio (Unpublished M.A. Thesis). University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Akpan, O., & Okon, E. A. (2020). Lower cross languages in Akwa Ibom State: A comparison and reconstruction of proto-forms. International Journal of Linguistics and Communication (IJOLAC), 7. Anyanwu, O. (2007). The syntax of Igbo causatives: A minimalist program account. In O. Ndimele (Ed.), Landmarks Two (pp. xx-xx). Port Harcourt: M and J Grand Orbit Communication Ltd., and Emhai Press. Chomsky, N. (1973). Conditions on transformations. In S. Anderson & P. Kiparsky (Eds.), A festschrift for Morris Halle (pp. 232-286). New York: H.R.W. Chomsky, N. (1991). Derivation by phase. In M. Kenstowicz (Ed.), Ken Halle: A life in language (pp. 104-131). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chomsky, N. (2015). The minimalist program (20th Anniversary). Massachusetts: MIT Press. Cook, V., & Newson, M. (2007). Chomsky's universal grammar: An introduction. Malden: Blackwell. Collins, C. (2002). Eliminating labels. In S. D. Epstein & D. Seely (Eds.), Derivation and explanation in the minimalist program (pp. 42-64). Oxford: Blackwell. Essien, O. (1990). A grammar of the Ibibio language. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press. Etim, V. E., & Okon, E. A. (2023). Acquisition of negation in the Anaan child language. British Journal of English Linguistics, 11(2), 68-78. Gelderen, E. (2017). Syntax: An introduction to minimalism. Arizona State University: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Haspelmath, M. (1997). Indefinite pronouns. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hornstein, N., Nunes, J., & Grohmann, K. (2005). Understanding minimalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Marantz, A. (1995). The minimalist program. In G. Webelhuth (Ed.), Government and binding theory and the minimalist program (pp. 349-381). Oxford: Blackwell. Ndimele, O. (1992). Cause-internal movement as a response to case summons. University of Port Harcourt, Ms. Ndimele, O. (2004). The parameters of universal grammar: A government-binding approach. Owerri: African Educational Services. Nkemnji, M. (1995). Heavy pied-piping in Nweh (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis). Department of Linguistics, University of California. Nweya, G. (2018). The Igbo clause structure and the cartography of the complementizer phrase domain. (Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation). University of Ibadan. Obiamalu, G. (2015). Functional categories in Igbo: A minimalist perspective. In O. Ndimele (Ed.), Landmarks Four. Port Harcourt: M and J Grand Orbit Communication Ltd. and Emhai Press. Olaogun, S. (2016). Information structural categories of the njo-koo language in Akoko North-west of Ondo State, Nigeria. (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation). University of Ibadan. Okon, E. (2012). Argument movement in Uda syntax. (M.A. Dissertation). Department of Linguistics & Nigerian languages, University of Uyo. Onuoha, J. (2016). Transformational generative grammar. In B. M. Mbah (Ed.), Theories of linguistics. Enugu: University of Nigeria Press Ltd. Radford, A. (2004). Minimalist syntax: Exploring the structure of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Radford, A. (2009). Analysing English sentences: A minimalist approach. New York: Cambridge University Press. Ross, J. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax (Ph.D. Dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published (1986) as Infinite syntax. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Udosen, E., & Okon, E. A. (2019). GB syntax on NP movement to argument position in Uda syntax. Journal of Nigerian Languages Project (JNLP), 1, 37-53. Udosen, E., & Okon, E. A. (2022). Complementation and headedness in Ibibio nominal compounds. In M. E. Ekpenyong & I. I. Udoh (Eds.), Current issues in descriptive linguistics and digital humanities. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-2932-8_7

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Birth Order and Peer Pressure as Determinants of Adolescents’ - Behavioural Adjustment in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State

By: M Adedayo Daodu
Email: daoduma@lasued.edu.ng

Tel: 08037204542

Abstract

The study examined the influence of Birth-Order and Peer Pressure on Adolescents Behavioral Adjustment in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Ninety (90) respondents were randomly selected from three (3) senior secondary schools consisting of male and female students. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Data for the study were collected through Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment Scale (ABAS); chi-square method was used to analyze the data collected for the study. Two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that birth order and peer pressure influence have a strong influence on adolescent behavioral adjustment in secondary schools. The study concluded that parents, teachers and school counsellor should monitor and re-orientate the adolescents to behave in a society acceptable way. Lastly, conclusion and recommendation were suggested

Keywords

Birth, Order, Peer, Pressure, Adolescent, Behaviour, Adjustment

Introduction

Adolescent is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood. The individual is no more a child, but he is not yet an adult. It is necessary to point out that the individual undergoing this period is referred to as adolescent, while the period is called adolescence. Komolafe, Ogunjimi and Adeniyi [2001] make clear that adolescence is a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood characterized by a number of pressures which are internal and external to the Adolescent.

Content

Birth Order refers to the order a child is born in their family; first-born, second born, third born, last born etc. Also, the birth order is the order in which a child is born. Birth order is often believed to have a profound and lasting effect on personality and psychological development of an individual especially children and adolescent. (Rohrer, Egloff and Schmukle, 2015). The work of Adler, the founder of individual psychology in 1982, was the first to discuss the influence of birth order on personality development. While he identified common characteristics and patterns for particular birth order positions, he emphasized how every person has a self- perceived place in his or her family (Leman, 2009). Adler (1982) believed that birth order has a direct association with personality characteristics of Adolescents. He asserted that family position can affect adolescent experiences and development. It is believed that each birth order position has its own unique set of personality traits.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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La Notion de L’erreur en Pedagogie de la Langue Etrangere

Kayode Olubukola ADELOWO, Solomon Aibo, AMAH BABALOLA, Jacob Olaniyi

La Notion de L’erreur en Pedagogie de la Langue Etrangere

By: Kayode Olubukola ADELOWO
Email: avikol2000@gmail.com

Tel: 07036681156

Abstract

Error analysis is a significant framework in teaching and learning of foreign language. It is a yardstick to measure the performance and progress of the learners in a language class. The issue of error as a subject of study is described by many authors, amongst whom are Cuq (2003), Rabadi Odeh (2010), Perdue (1980), Cuq & Gruca (2003) etc. Thus, this paper examined the notion of error in the teaching and learning of French as a foreign language among the students of French in Federal College of Education Pankshin in Plateau state, Nigeria. Thirty-two students of B.A. Ed 400 level were tested on the various use of French nouns ranging from gender and number of usage of nouns, agreement of nouns with the subject and the use of compound nouns. This was approached through a detailed assessment of assignment of gender to French nouns, which are purely grammatical in nature and the various issues surrounding the use of French nouns in students writing. In essence, the research shows that errors in the use of nouns among students of French as a foreign language can be categorised according to the issue of gender that is arbitrary, that of number of nouns that is confusing and that of agreement of gender with its subject and number and the problem associated with using French compound nouns and so on. In conclusion, experts in the study of French as a foreign language admit that every error can be a powerful tool to encourage learning and produce enriching interactions between teachers and learners. The implications of this for pedagogical practice were also discussed and finally, we suggested that since French nouns carry arbitrary genders and there are no clear-cut rules for recognising them, learners of French as a foreign language should pay more attention to gender of nouns in their day-to-day studies since it’s almost impossible to imagine a foreign language study without an error because this forms part of the processes of teaching and learning.

Keywords

error, teaching, learning, foreign language, teacher, learner

Introduction

Dans le processus d’enseignement et d’apprentissage, L’analyse des erreurs comme une branche d’étude est considérée aujourd’hui comme une étape normale dans l’apprentissage. En fait, l’erreur, selon Labdi, (2013:1), est un bon révélateur du modèle d’apprentissage voire une représentation de l’acte d’apprendre. Selon cet auteur, apprendre est prendre le risque de se tromper, c’est oser expérimenter les outils que l’on maitrise aux situations que l’on rencontre et ce n’est plus être dramatisée et synonyme d’échec irrémédiable (Labdi, 2013 :2). D’après cette définition alors, il est évident que l’erreur est importante et parfois inévitable dans le processus d’enseignement et apprentissage parce que les étudiants en cours de leur formation dans les études du FLE tâtonnent et tombent dans leurs efforts de se débrouiller dans les études d’une nouvelle langue. Ces étudiants pour pouvoir s’améliorer essaient de se corriger après qu’ils ont commis les erreurs et de ce fait maitrisent la loi de cette nouvelle langue.

Content

Le processus d’apprentissage et d’enseignement de n’importe quelle langue ne se base pas sur le néant, mais se bâtit sur des savoirs, des savoir-faire et des savoir-être (Rabadi et Odeh, 2010 :163). ...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Exploration des Thèmes Sociaux Modernes dans Vernon Subutex de Virginie Despentes.

By: Peter Akongfeh Agwu
Email: agwupeteraakonfe@unical.edu.ng

Abstract

In several French literary studies, authors have explored themes addressing the roles of technology that has continued to threaten the essence of humanity. But, little attention has been given to the rising levels of individualism, the loss of community bonds, and shared values in today's world. This study aims to evaluate the themes of isolation and fragmentation in Virginie Despentes' Vernon Subutex. The goal is to explore how the novel's characters grapple with social isolation, loss of connection, and the difficulty of finding their place in a constantly evolving world. Through an in-depth analysis grounded in social theory and engaged literature theory, we will understand how Despentes uses her novel to prompt us to reflect on our own participation in this social fragmentation and to question the individual choices that can reinforce these patterns. Using social theory, we will examine societies where common values erode interpersonal relationships are superficial, and empathy and solidarity are sidelined. Through the study of this novel, we hope to develop a deeper understanding of the challenges our modern society faces.

Keywords

Modern society, French literature, Individualism, Fragmentation, Isolation.

Introduction

La littérature française contemporaine reflète souvent les préoccupations et les réalités de la société moderne, marquée par des dynamiques sociales complexes qui conduisent à l'isolement et à la fragmentation de notre société moderne. Ce siècle a été le témoin de bouleversements sociaux, technologiques et culturels majeurs, qui ont profondément transformé les relations humaines et la manière dont les individus interagissent de façon extrême avec le monde qui les entoure. Ainsi, les écrivains français contemporains ont exploré ces changements à travers leurs œuvres, mettant en lumière les thèmes divers sur les mécanismes qui caractérisent le rapport entre l’homme et la société. Ces écrivains audacieux examinent les multiples facettes de cette réalité, allant des barrières de communication à la perte de valeurs communes et à l'aliénation de l'individu.

Content

Notre étude abord une revue systématique. La revue littéraire systématique, également connue sous le nom de revue systématique de la littérature ou revue de la littérature systématique, est une méthode de recherche qui vise à identifier, évaluer et synthétiser de manière rigoureuse et systématique les connaissances existantes sur un sujet spécifique dans le domaine de la littérature. Elle est largement utilisée dans les études littéraires, la recherche académique et d'autres domaines connexes. Toutefois, la littérature française contemporaine aborde plusieurs thèmes qui reflètent les préoccupations et les réalités de la société moderne. Les écrivains contemporains explorent souvent des sujets complexes et variés, qui reflètent les défis sociaux, politiques et culturels de notre époque. Il convient de noter que ces thèmes sont représentatifs de certains travaux de chercheurs et d'écrivains contemporains, mais la littérature française contemporaine aborde une variété de sujets et de thèmes complexes. Chaque auteur a sa propre perspective et son approche unique pour explorer les réalités de la société moderne, reflétant ainsi la diversité de la littérature française contemporaine. La ligne suivante constitue une présentation générale des thèmes majeurs abordés dans la littérature française contemporaine, en citant des travaux d'autres chercheurs dans le but de créer les lacunes de recherche sur notre étude.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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A Study of Nigeria’s Opera Development and Composers

By: Adeolu Abe
Email: deoluabe@yahoo.com

Abstract

One of the performing art forms that came to Nigeria during the colonial days from Europe is opera, it has subsequently developed the Nigerian form over time in different categories. With focus on the scored opera and composers, this paper employed survey and interview method to gather primary data while literature review provided secondary data to trace the development of scored operas in Nigeria and identify its composers. The paper revealed that the development of Nigeria’s scored opera was a result of Western training and more importantly, the establishment of Nigerian higher institutions that fostered music study along other performing arts departments that trained professional musicians and artistes. It however established fifteen 16 opera composers and twenty-nine (30) operas in Nigeria. It subsequently concluded that the future of opera in Nigeria is hinged on improved educational curriculum.

Keywords

Opera, development, composers, literature, music

Introduction

Opera developed in Europe 17th century and it came to Nigeria during the colonial era as part of the social activities among foreigners and Nigerians who had acquired and appreciated the Western culture especially through mission Schools and Churches. Opera became one of the performances that was brought on stage during the period as modern society emerged. However, Nigerians overtime developed a form similar to the European opera called the ‘folk opera’ which became formidable in the 1940s, pioneered by Hubert Ogunde with a number of other composers and dramatists who emerged and explored the art form around the middle of the 20th century. However, the early folk opera in Nigeria did not enjoy formal music notation and libretto. The early Nigerian folk opera gradually gave way to professional theatre, subsequently, new form of opera developed. Western music education with its culture and modern environment that started emerging in Nigeria’s 20th century became significant influence for the new operatic form which grew and birthed new dimensions in operatic growth in Nigeria. Its development even though slow probably due to the technicality involved, has however developed at its own pace in Nigeria and has been established as part of Nigerian musical and theatrical art forms. As Nigerian operas are limited so are its composers. While the former (folk opera) had received attention in literature, the latter has a dearth of knowledge as minimal written works on it is found. This study therefore seeks to examine the evolution of scored operas with a survey of Nigerian opera composers and their works.

Content

The Nigerian Opera in Pre-independence Evolution of Western education and the Church in Nigeria were pivotal to the development of opera in Nigeria. Music used in the Christian liturgy, classical as well as social music from foreign communities thrived within the growing Nigerian modern societies such as Lagos, Onitsha, Ibadan, Calabar among few others. Several music groups evolved and promoted different genres of music that surfaced within the society, in the Church and schools. Equally, dramatic society sprang up and brought significant influence within the society. Ogunbiyi (1989), Omolola (1995), Ekwueme (2008) and other scholars documented series of artistic events within the society. Ogunbiyi (1981) notes that musical development in Lagos came early and drama developed later. The influence went on for about several years sprouting artistes with improved ideas composing and performing in pre-colonial Nigeria in the 1920s and 1930s. It must be noted ...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Developing and Deploying African and Black Creative Energies in the 21st Century: Some Suggestions for Policymakers

By: Ofonime Inyang
Email: titiaofonime@gmail.com

Tel: 08188164110

Abstract

Within the varied context of global reflections on the instrumentality of the creative sector as a driver of development in different parts of the world, a lacuna exist about what can be considered the appropriate and commonly accepted continental position regarding the issue beyond UNESCO projections. This obviously potentiates a crippling recourse to the interiorization of a serious matter by African leaders and Policymakers in clear adherence to the spin strings of imposed policy templates including cultural policy that should rightly emanate from endogenous sources. This enduring deficit in working out a common and coherent vision of engaging the creative energies of Africa and the Black race leaves us as perpetual recipients of foreign ideation and international cultural policy impositions that often negates the cultural reality in our societies and sometimes operates in opposite terms with the desires and goals of the local creative community. Stemming the tide of this error requires a multiplicity of perspectives, approaches and strategies. This paper aims to articulate a policy-driven template for developing and deploying African and Black creative energies for maximum productivity within the competitive space of cultural and creative globalization in the 21st Century. The paper shall attempt to generate fresh perspectives about the necessity for rethinking the development and deploying of African and Black creative energies with a view to inculcating best practices as well as mainstream the welfare, safety, conducive and equitable work conditions for local artists, cultural workers and creative stakeholders. Using theoretical and analytical binoculars built out of a deep understanding of the African environment and context, the paper idealizes that the development of African and Black creative energies is critical to the realization of African Union’ Agenda 2063 and without the strategic envisioning of what that development entails, Africa and its Black diaspora will find itself being left out of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). Moreover, the paper further concludes that the development of a critical mass in the creative sector cannot suffice without the mobilization of all the core players in the economic, education, the organized private sector, the local economies and knowledge systems, foreign direct investors, the public sector and all the agencies and institutions focused on the creative industries in the continent and in the Black diaspora.

Keywords

Developing, African and Black, Creative Energies, Policymakers, Creative Industries.

Introduction

Africa’s place as a critical resource base for development in all sectors has been widely acknowledged over the years. Its standing as a rich continent of great history, resourceful people, beautiful environment, inviting biodiversity, a vibrant culture and heritage scene is well-established and extensively documented by generations of scholars and researchers (Aig-Imoukuede, 1991; Bisschoff, 2013; Awodiya, 2017).

Content

Defining Creative Energies Creative Energies represents the fulcrum of artistic and creative resources that are available in the society. They can be classified into the various streams of artistic and creative endowments available in a society as well as the human resources committed to livelihoods and practice in those fields. The Cambridge Dictionary defines creative energy as “having the ability or power to create” or a set of activity and engagement “characterized by originality of thought or inventiveness.”

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Historicising Local Gin (Ogogoro) And the Culture of Drinking Among the Arogbo-Ijaw of Ondo State Up To 1970

By: Awofisayo Oladipo Albert
Email: awofisayooladipupo@gmail.com

Tel: +2348039275312

Abstract

Local gin is variously referred to as Káí-káí, Bàbáèrìn, Etonto, Ijaw Tuwo Wuru, KuroWuruPush-me-I-push-you, Sapele-water, Ekpetesi, Ogogoro, and Pàrágàin many places including the coastal and riverine areas of Ondo state. The places where it is produced within the area of study include all the communities in Arogbo kingdom. The inhabitants of Arogbo kingdom are known to be predominantly fishermen by virtue of the territory which is primarily riverine and coastal. Ogogoro production is also central in the socio-economic life of the people. Despite its negative effects on the consumers and several efforts in discouraging the consumption of this Ogogoro, it is still very much popular among the Arogbo-Ijaw as it serves several socio-cultural purposes such as marriage rite, burial rites, festivals, appeasing the ancestors and social gathering. This paper x-rays the production, historical ascendancy, socio-cultural and economic significance of Ogogoro among the Arogbo-Ijaw. Historical methods such as oral interviews and secondary sources were used in the collection, collation and interpretation of data. The findings reveal that, the consumptions of Ogogoro which was a taboo before this period is now part of youth’s way of life and that no marriage is consummated without Ogogoro.

Keywords

Ogogoro, Palm Wine, Libation, Arogbo-Ijaw, Riverine, Pre-colonial.

Introduction

In any human community, the geographical terrain has a way of fashioning the socio-economic life of the dwellers. The Arogbo-Ijaw of Ondo state is not an exception. The nature, type and pattern of a people ‘s food consumption and drinking habits are direct reflection of their overall culture and behavioural ethics. Available evidences show that the people of coastal and riverine Nigeria like any other cultural group in different climes of the world, relished in alcohol usage, which in the area of study composed of palm wine from the raffia palm, known respectively among the Arogbo-Ijaw as Ijaw Tuwo Wuru which is generally referred to as Ogogoro by many ethnic groups. The drink serves its peculiar social and economic functions and it proved to be a lucrative business, which provides employment to a large segment of the populace who found ...

Content

The proliferation of local gin production popularly called Ogogoro appears to be a development of the early colonial period. A brief examination of the possible origin of Ogogoro production in Nigeria and consequently in the coastal and riverine regions of Nigeria suffices to point out how it may be linked to the colonial political economy. The prohibition of gin imports in the early period of colonial rule, and the collapse of cash-crop economy in Nigeria during the period of international economic recession of 1929-33 made it difficult for indigenes to be able to patronize imported trade spirit. According to some traditions, a man known as Stocky James Iso, a native of Calabar, was said to have been the first man to distill Ogogoro in Nigeria. He worked with Paterson Zochonis (PZ) and later with G.W Griffiths, another British firm. While he was working with these European firms...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Godfatherism In Nigerian Politics and Democratic Consolidation in The Fourth Republic 1999-2018

By: Fukpene Baitei
Email: historicbaitei@gmail.com

Tel: +2348039275312

Abstract

In contemporary democracy, politics of Godfatherism has become a major issue in many countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, the activities of godfathers have been on the increase and it is a very sad irony that a country like Nigeria having generated huge revenue from petroleum since the 1970’s have the most miserable infrastructures, medical services and educational system. The negative effects of godfatherism in a fragile democracy in our clime especially when peaceful coexistence is threatened cannot be over emphasised. Godfatherism is a potent avenue for corruption, bad governance, political instability, retrogression, mediocrity, perpetual poverty of the people and above all a threat to peaceful co-existence. This unholy alliance of godfatherism has also led to inter-party and intra-party defections, and conflicts among the party members. Against this backdrop, the paper unveils the problematic dimensions of the phenomenon of godfatherism which rears its ugly head in Nigeria, especially in the current republic as it affects peaceful co-existence. The paper reveals that, godfatherism is a major factor to contend with if not handled constitutionally as the activities of these godfathers permeates in Nigeria’s body politics. Primary and secondary sources were used in the collection, collation and interpretation of data.

Keywords

Godfatherism, Godson, Power, Peace, Unholy Alliance, Democracy

Introduction

The word 'Godfather' appears in parenthesis in many western political studies. The situation is different in Nigeria. Politics of godfatherism has featured prominently in the political history of independent Nigeria. The series of political imbroglio experienced in some states of the country has exposed the negative impacts of crude political godfatherism in Nigerian politics. Godfathers are generally defined as men who have the power and financial capacity and are influential to decide and determine who gets nominated to contest elections in either primary or general elections and who wins in the elections. Godfatherism is a kind of political behaviour whereby an influential person in a popular or ruling party assists someone usually a lackey, i.e. godson to emerge as the governorship candidate of a party at all cost either by hook or crook.

Content

The term “Godfatherism” is deeply rooted in the sociology of the traditional Nigerian pre-colonial societies. The patron/client relationships that characterized the term in modern Nigerian politics have cultural roots among many Nigerians peoples. It is not a totally a new phenomenon among Nigerian politicians to have one or other type of 'godfather'. An apt example could be derived from the pre-colonial major ethnic groups in Nigeria. The term 'godfather' has a local equivalence among the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo and these words have been in usage since the pre-colonial era.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Trauma in African Literature: Culture and the Phenomenon of Mental Distress in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Kilanko’s Daughters who Walk this Path

By: Kabir Ahmed
Email: kabirabate@yahoo.co.uk

Tel: 08033322264

Abstract

One of the issues rarely considered in Achebe’s debut is the traumatic experiences of Okonkwo and Nwoye. To illustrate the significance of this mental distress on their lives, this study compares the novel to a more recent one that focalises trauma, Kilanko’s Daughters who Walk this, Path. The study aims to locate trauma and the disposition to recovery in culturally determined individuals such that traumatised persons within and without the same fictive world may respond differently to mental distress as a result of their cultural disposition. In the worlds created in the narratives of Chinua Achebe and Yejide Kilanko, both of African, Nigerian origin but different by generation and gender (also markers of culture), individuals who meet similar situations mentally respond differently, and those who are mentally distressed maintain different attitudes to healing. This difference, the paper argues, is determined by their cultural position to such experience. Herman’s views on trauma are adopted for their explanation of the unspeakability of trauma and the recovery process. This essay further shows that the unspeakability of trauma could be traced to the culture of silence and shame under which experiences are viewed as in Okonkwo’s world. The findings of the study show that both the perception of trauma and the response to it (such as disposition to healing) are culturally determined.

Keywords

African Literature, Culture, Mental Distress, Recovery, Trauma

Introduction

The entry of trauma discourse into literary studies is traceable to the intervention of literary critics and scholars like Cathy Caruth, Kali Tal, Dominick La Capra, Shoshanna Felman, and Dori Laub. It gained significant attention in 1996 with the publication of Cathy Caruth’s Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History and Kali Tal’s Worlds of Hurt: Reading the Literatures of Trauma. Literary trauma theory was established on two models, the Classic and the Pluralistic. The arguments of the two models revolve around the representability of trauma. For the classics, trauma, especially the event, can neither be ...

Content

Okonkwo has a traumatic childhood in addition to other experiences of his life that have left psychic wounds on him. But because he exists in a culture where neither the idea of trauma exists in their lexicon nor the reality allowed expression, it is not focalised. This traumatic identity marks his shared quality with his son, Nwoye. As much as Nwoye seems to be antithetical to his father, both coincide at the point where they are responding to psychic wounds, though in different ways. In fact, Okonkwo’s constant dissociation from and disapproval of Nwoye evinces his anxiety over his trauma, and his attempt to deal with it, as permissible within his culture. His rise and fall are symptomatic of his trauma. In order to establish his trauma, it is important to understand trauma as “the response to an unexpected or overwhelming violent event or events that are not fully grasped as they occur, but return later in repeated flashbacks, nightmares, and repetitive phenomena” (Caruth 91). In this light, Okonkwo’s life is an index of trauma:

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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President Muhammadu Buhari Sixtieth Independence Anniversary Speech: A Discourse Analysis

By: M Jamiu OLOKO
Email: Jamiuoloko@gmail.com

Tel: 08022775585

Abstract

Independence Day celebration in Nigeria usually features an address of the President on socio-economic and socio-political issues. The choice of the appropriate language to address such sensitive issues needs careful considerations. The sixtieth independence anniversary speech of the President constitutes the data for the study. The objective of the study is to investigate how President Muhammadu Buhari manipulates language to convey his message to the citizens. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative method in the analysis of data. In the qualitative analysis, the transitivity component of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistic is employed as theoretical model while frequency and percentage distributions of data is used in the quantitative analysis. Findings show that President Muhammadu Buhari’s address is an action-oriented speech as a cursory look at the transitivity system in the text clause by clause indicates how the President encapsulates his mission to re-build Nigeria and solicits for the co-operation of the people to achieve this laudable objective. The high-level number of material processes is an indication that the analyzed text is an action-oriented speech. A cursory look at the transitivity system in the text clause by clause shows how President Muhammadu Buhari encapsulates his mission to re-build Nigeria and soliciting for the co-operation of the people. The study concludes that resourcefulness of language is very significant in human society as language and discourse will continue to play central role in communication, interaction and the establishment of a sustainable democratic society.

Keywords

Language, linguistics, discourse, independence anniversary speech, democratic society.

Introduction

Human communications basically rely on the use of language in an organized way. According to Stork and Widowson (2013:208), 'every language comprises sophisticated and highly developed systems which can meet up with the needs of the society where they function and that of the individual to express emotions and transmit information. Therefore, society and language are inseparable because an individual needs language to function and fit in properly into the society. As a potent tool in the hands of the one who has the oratorical skills, language can achieve the unexpected positive outcome. Osisanwo (2017:272) citing Edom (1965) believes that “language is the key to the heart of the people, if you lose it, you lose the people, if you keep it safe, it unlocks the people’s heart”. According to Yule (2017:190), to be able to interpret the messages we receive and for our messages to be meaningful is beyond structure and linguistic form because there are discourse rules which the users of the language are familiar with. When speeches are made in politics, political leaders are able to stay connected to the masses. They usually manipulate language to convince the masses logically and appeal to their emotions.

Content

Theoretical Framework Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) The framework for describing and modeling language is suggested by the Systemic Functional Linguistics. This framework helps to determine choices and meaning. That is, it emphasizes on semiotics, the way utterances and texts show the meaning potentials and the code of language. Halliday (2004) states that the functions of language are expressed through three types of meaning or meta-functions which reflect in the structure of the clause. According to him, ‘‘the cluse is considered as multifunctional construct in the grammar, one that realizes three different semantic units, one for each meta functions: ideational, interpersonal and textual (2004:588). For the structure of the clause to make meaning, the three kinds of meaning must be considered

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Neo-liberalism and Eco-Imperialism in Ogaga Ifowodo’s The Oil Lamp

By: Adebiyi-Adelabu Kazeem
Email: aka.adebiyi@gmail.com

Tel: +2348035674310

Abstract

In recent years, African poetry has steadily grown responsive to some of the ecological challenges the continent is grappling with. The Nigerian poetic tradition known as Niger Delta poetry is perhaps the largest body of eco-poetry on the continent. As the emergence and surge in the volume of this poetry is inextricably linked to the growing despoliation of the ecosystem of the oil-rich Niger Delta, critical attention to the eco-conscious nature of the poetry has not been lacking. However, the representation of the political-economy of the activities of the oil companies in the poetry in relation to the state of the environment has been underexplored. This paper, therefore, examines the roles of multinational oil corporations, in cahoots with Nigerian political elites, in the devastation and neglect of the environment from which they draw huge profits. This is with a view to advancing scholarship on the poetry. Using Ogaga Ifowodo’s The Oil Lamp, this critical engagement shows that oil corporations deploy violent but subtle imperialistic tactics and neoliberal strategies to wreak devastation on the Niger Delta environment.

Keywords

Neoliberalism, Imperialism, Niger Delta poetry, Ogaga Ifowodo, eco-poetry

Introduction

About two decades ago, Slaymaker (2007) criticises literature from sub-Saharan Africa for its lack of ecological consciousness. He contends that both eco-literature and eco-criticism in the sub-region have not kept pace with environmental literature of the metropolitan centres. He buttresses his arguments with references to the writings from African writers and critics such as Niyi Osundare, Wole Soyinka, Femi Osofisan, Ngugi wa Thiong’O, Ali Mazrui Bessie Head, Ken Saro-Wiwa, among others and posits that their writing is not eco-conscious enough or do not preserve link with the metropolitan centre’s conception of eco-literature. Interestingly, Slaymaker’s position has attracted deserved critical responses, whether deliberately of coincidentally. For instance, Caminero-Santangelo (2007) argues that the assumptions that Slaymaker based his view on are essentially Anglo-American. He insists that such assumptions are inadequate to engage the African imagination of nature and environment in critical discourse. It is apparently on the same account that Nixon (2007:716), in “Environmentalism and Postcolonialism”, argues that “it is no longer viable to view environmental... as a Western luxury” and concludes that the claim that African Literature lacks environmental consciousness is jaundiced. Views such as these have also come from African critics. A very early one in this regard is Nfah-Abbenyi’s (2007) “Ecological Postcolonialism in African Women’s Literature”, where she shows how African women writers are environmentally conscious.

Content

The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is home to more than 20 million people and more than forty ethnic groups (Ayuba, 2012). According to Orhero (2020: 5), the region was “originally made up of six states namely, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo and Rivers before three more states: Abia, Imo and Ondo were added to sum the nine oil-producing states”. Evidently in the foregoing, the Niger Delta is made up of the oil producing states in Nigeria. These States massively contribute to the GDP of the country, every year. Relatively, Darah (2010:102) argues that the Niger Delta refers to the areas rich in crude oil, but in a state of devastation because of capitalist-oriented ecological issues.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Egbesu Deity in Niger Delta Conflict: A Critical Review of Ekanpou Enewaridideke’s Spiked beyond Spikes

By: Martha Omotetobore Egbedi
Email: megbedi@delsu.edu.ng

Abstract

The oil-rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria has remained underdeveloped and pauperized in spite of the immense oil wealth derived from exploration of its natural resources. It is no wonder that Niger Delta youths form militant groups to protect their local environment. These militias resort to the supernatural to harmonize their limited military power to the superior arsenals of their adversaries who are the ruling powers of the Nigerian state. Ijaw militias in particular, invoke the mystic power of Egbesu deity of war and justice for protection, invisibility and immunity in confronting state machineries. This paper examines the portrayal of Egbesu in recent Niger Delta literature. Egbesu is employed as a mystical inspiration in Ekanpou Enewaridideke’s Spiked beyond Spikes in the struggle against the combine forces of the Nigerian government, oil companies and internal exploiters to combat environmental depletion, political discrimination and the Niger Delta politics. While employing the Eco-Marxist ideology which integrates the Marxian trust of opposition to capitalism in environmental issues, the paper situates the Egbesu deity as a supernatural force that empowers and fortifies the Ijaws in warfare. It concludes by noting that in oil conflict, Enewaridideke, projects a return to the gods as a spiritual instrument of resistance in order to tackle the seemly never-ending predicament of the Niger Delta people.

Keywords

Niger Delta, Ijaw youth, Ekanpou Enewaridideke, Eco-Marxism, Egbesu,

Introduction

The belief in supernatural forces is strong in Africa even though many profess to belong to the Christian or Muslim faith. Among the Ijaw people of the Niger Delta as in many African cultures, there is still a strong commitment to ancestor worship. The water spirit, Owuamapu and Egbesu for instance, are prominent in the Ijaw pantheon. Egbesu is recognized in Ijaw tradition as the god of war and justice. The deity is believed to offer divine defense from attacks of the enemy weapons. Omeje (2005), acknowledges this when he affirms that “Outmatched by the military power of their adversaries, these Ijaw groups re-invent and tap into the spiritual power of the ancient Egbesu deity in their homeland, a magical device that complements their limited firepower” (pp.81-82). The summons of Egbesu in contemporary Niger Delta literature indicates the peoples’ desire to go back to their cultural roots as a means of invoking a more superior power in the tussle between them and the Nigerian government because “it is widely held that Egbesu offers magical protection against gunfire to these young militias” (Omeje, 2005: p.82).

Content

Background to Oil Conflict in the Niger Delta The Niger Delta region, located in the Southern part of Nigeria undeniably generates more income than any other region in the nation due to its huge reserve of crude oil. Oil extraction has impacted disastrously on the environment of Niger Delta communities, threatening the subsistent peasant economy, ecosystem, abode of their gods and by extension, their entire livelihood and economic survival. Enajite Ojaruega (2022) lists some of these existential threats to include: “depletion of biodiversity, coastal and riverbank erosion, oil spillage, soil fertility loss, deforestation, gas flares, and the improper disposal of industrial wastes from the oil industry, especially the local oil refineries are some of the fallouts” (p.15). The oil producing communities have basically remained underdeveloped, marginalized and psychologically alienated while the wealth derived from oil resources and exports revenue is largely used to develop other places as well as a benefit the operators of the oil industry and the bureaucrats in government (Ojaruega, 2022: p.16)...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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A Mythography of Kola Eke’s Poetry

By: Esther Iria Jamgbadi
Email: esther.jamgbadi@uniben.edu

Tel: 08039520228

Abstract

Recent Nigerian poetry has begun to exhibit features of mythography as they construct socio-political ideas round myths. This attempts to explore how Kola Eke has employed myths to deal with societal issues. Through a sustained use of several myths, the poet invokes mythical figures derived from Igbo, Yoruba, and Benin ethnic nationalities namely Ani, Arochukwu, Sango, Ogun, Ebomisi and several others. The textual analytic methodology is used to interprets the poems drawn from Eke’s four collection of poems, namely, October 1960 and Other Poems, May 29 and Other Poems, June 12 and Other Poems and February 1976 and Other Poems. Relying on the theory of mythography, the paper discovered that Eke invokes mythical characters to give the poems folkloric quality and infuse them with visual and thematic power. It concludes that Eke invokes mythical figures to actualize social control, articulate societal redirection and envision accountability in the poems.

Keywords

Mythography, Social Control, Societal Redirection, Accountability, Invocation and Figures

Introduction

Modern Nigerian poetry has always embraced the use of myths either for thematic reasons or for artistic purposes. Myths are central to African poetic imagination because they help in enriching their texts. Mythographic representation in Nigerian poetry has a long historiography. Right from the inception especially among the first generation of Nigerian poets myths were integral to their poetry. For example, Wole Soyinka, J.P. Clark-Bekederemo, Gabriel Imomotime Okara, Christopher Okigbo and few others are known to have engaged the use of myths for cultural affirmation. The second generation poets like Niyi Osundare, Odia Ofeimun, and Tenure Ojaide have used myths sparingly to embellish their poetic art. Thus mythography has permeated the two previous generations of poetry in Nigeria.

Content

This section seeks to establish that Kola Eke invokes mythical figures in his poems in order to actualize social control. By social control, Zeinab Abulhul quoting Mannheim explains that, it is “the sum of those methods by which a society tries to influence human’s behaviour to maintain a given order” (98). The overriding purpose of social control is the maintenance of order in society. Abulhul adds that it is carried out to “regulate relationships among individuals and groups through social institutions to ensure promoting the welfare of the society as a whole” (9). It is against this background that Eke’s poems are examined to show how and why mythical figures are invoked.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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The Teaching of French as a Foreign Language in Nigeria: Federal Colleges of Education, Okene and Oyo (Special)

By: J O Babalola
Email: olaniyibabss@gmail.com

Tel: 08022098961

Abstract

Foreign languages like French are studied for so many reasons (that vary) from country to country and from individual to individual depending on the individual needs and interests. This article focuses mainly on the study of French language as a second official language in Nigeria; particularly at the Colleges of Education level. It investigates the problems facing learners, teachers as well as the teaching of the subject itself as one of the College of Education courses in Nigeria. Though the French language stands to be the main thrust of this study, some of the findings and views expressed may equally be applicable to the acquisition of other foreign languages in the country.

Keywords

French language, Students Foreign Languages, Language Acquisition, Colleges of Education, Nigeria.

Introduction

For effective presentation of “the challenges of teaching French in Nigeria” the author considers it imperative in adopting the inverted pyramidal approach. Having done this, the discussion will start with the critical examination of the language in context, i.e. French language as an international and world language, and finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges of French language acquisition in Nigeria. This strategy is simply adopted, particularly in this kind of exposition because the ultimate goal will strictly be on the (challenges of French language acquisition), having commenced with the outermost layer (French language in Nigeria), this hopefully should provide a vivid outlook for clarity of exposition(s).

Content

During the era of the scramble for Africa by the European and American colonial powers in the 19th Century, the British government recorded a tremendous success by conquering and seizing the territory around the River Niger Area. Following this conquest and seizure, the area was named “Nigeria”. Babajide (2001) observes that the name “Nigeria” is a derivational name from a blend of “Niger” and “Area”. Lord Lugard, a popular colonial administrator then, was appointed by the London government to oversee the new British colony. This originally marked the introduction of the British colonial rule in Nigeria. From that time up till this present moment, the English Language has been the original official language in the country. Bamgbose (1971) and Babajide (2001) observe that there are about 400 indigenous languages in Nigeria. These various languages, according to Achebe (2012), are spoken by about 250 different ethnic groups. Unfortunately, none of these languages is considered to be playing the roles of the official language for obvious indigenous language as the official language will be tantamount to conferring an official status on it and imposing it on the other ethnic groups thereby subjecting them to be playing minor functions under the one selected. Since each ethnic group is emotionally attached to its language, each ethnic group is bound to resist any attempt to impose the language of another ethnic group on them. This calls for why each successive Federal Government has been avoiding the idea of adopting one particular Nigerian indigenous language as the country’s official language, and that equally affirms the reasons English language has continued to remain the only official language.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Identity Discourse in Noviolet Bulawayo’s We Need New Names

By: Katung John KWASU
Email: kkatung@gmail.com

Tel: 08178279246

Abstract

Discourses on identity formation are replete with how rejection and acceptance in a particular society goes a long way in determining a person's self-esteem and sense of accomplishment. This paper interrogates unstable identities in the Africans domiciled in the diaspora. By adopting Karen Horny Strand of Psychoanalysis, it investigates the nexus between personal identity and collective identity and how both are problematized and constituted. The paper uncovers that identity for the African immigrant living in the diaspora is a construct, an idea of contestation that changes in response to the reality in the Diaspora. Identity for the immigrants is a strategy for survival in cases of hostility, racism in the Diaspora or disillusionment of the reality in Africa for the African immigrant living in the diaspora.

Keywords

Unstable Identity, Horneyan Psychoanalysis, Diaspora, Immigrant, Strategy.

Introduction

The subject of identity is succinctly explored in Bulawayo’s We Need New Names and is closely tied to the notion of being aware and attached to multiple societies mostly; Africa and the diaspora. This multiple consciousness inspires mutations in self-perception as a reaction to the psychological conflict, racial discrimination and the social conditions of the African immigrant living in the diaspora. There are close similarities between the experiences of Africans living in the diaspora that belong to the second generation of immigrants from Africa and that of African Americans - an offshoot of slave trade. These combinations or, blends of worlds have dualised the identity of the aforementioned thus; making them to fight over the reconciliation of these worlds (dual-heritage) in accordance with the prevailing circumstances and historical influences. It is in line with this trend of thought that Dubois (1963: 215) posits: The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of white Americanism, for he knows that the Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both Negro and an American, without having the door of opportunity closed roughly in his face. Both African Americans and African immigrants in the diasporas experience a conflict of affinity to dual and sometimes multiple societies. The fight to retain both creates the diaspora character, or characteristics. Gyasi (2016: 3) who was brought to the US as a 6-year-old lends weight to this saying: “I don’t feel Ghanaian enough when I’m in Ghana, I don’t feel American enough when I’m in America, and this straddling of these two worlds where I feel some kind of alienation from either side of things was really eye-opening.” It is this feeling that creates a transient identity that attempts to pledge allegiance to conflicting cultures within the African immigrant’s psyche. As Procter (2004: 109) posits, “we have moved from a time of stable, unified identities to unstable plural ones…identities have become increasingly unsettled.” This is epitomized through most of the characters of the text under study. Although some of these African diaspora characters like Tess Onwueme (2016: 34) feel that “Anywhere I am, Nigeria is. I carry my cultural identity with me. So, when they see me, they see Nigeria, they see Africa. I live it. I breathe it and I eat it…I live the values. I feel a sense of pride being an African.” A feeling of cultural estrangement sometimes sparks this feeling of cultural nationalism in African immigrants living in the diaspora. If the feeling of estrangement is allowed to wither away it couldn’t have been a problem but it is the effort to resurrect the felt lost or eroded heritage that gives the African immigrant to the diaspora not only a double-edged identity but a double heritage as well. All of the effort put to reclaim, to reassert this past that form cultural history be it anthropological or political is what makes African immigrant to the diaspora not only interesting but relevant in the study of our changing world. A world of transnationalism as Selasi would have us believe in her TED Talk (2013).

Content

As Horney (1885: 45) argues that the dynamism in identity formation is a defense mechanism in response to prevailing social reality. She postulates that the unconscious part of the human mind is associated with hidden conflict. This conflict spurs “constellation of defenses,” within the unconscious and these defenses contributes an integral role in establishing a fluid identity. Hogg and Vaughan (2011: 123) foreground the basis or foundation of identity thus: Identities probably have their origins in the vast array of different social relationships that form, or have formed; the anchoring points of our lives, ranging from close...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..

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Marriage and the Expression of Linguistic Identity in Edo (Benin)

By: Violet Osayi EVBAYIRO
Email: ighasere.aigbedo@uniben.edu

Tel: +2348142809795

Abstract

Language is obviously and undeniably a vital tool and not only is it a means of communicating thoughts, ideas, feelings, opinions and needs, language but also a tool in the hands of our ancestors via which cultural norms, values, friendships and economic relationships, have flourish. Festivals, rituals and ceremonies particularly, marriage ceremonies are conducted via language. This paper examines the different terms used during marriage ceremonies in Benin. The focus is on the language used during traditional marriage ceremony in a typical Benin environment and how this is used to project the identity of the people. The data for the research were collected through interviews and observation (participant observation during traditional marriage rites in Benin), especially in the area of the ceremonies. The researchers employed audio recording and writing, the data were drawn principally from established personalities in the Benin society. This work has helped to bring to limelight the intangible cultural heritage of the Bini people in ceremonies like marriages and the style of language employed in the different stages of the ceremony.

Keywords

Marriages, Identity, Benin, Ẹdo (Benin) Variation

Introduction

Language generally tends to be made up of many different varieties. And the terms and expressions used in this language of traditional marriage are many which in the context of situation of the occasion are a variety of Ẹdo language spoken in Benin City. Ẹdo has become predominantly linguistic and ethnic labels referring in scope to the language and people of the entire Benin Division. In addition, Ẹdo however, has served as the indigenous name for the city (Agheyisi, 1986). The name Ẹdo (the old name for Benin) is used by some writers to cover all the languages of the Ẹdoid group of languages, but a writer like Greenberg, on the other hand, did not use the name Ẹdo at all in any of his classifications, but merely listed the languages of the group by their individual names, using Bini for ‘Ẹdo’ language. Melzian in his famous dictionary of the language refers to the Ẹdo language as Bini following various controversies which are not relevant to his work. The Ẹdo language was properly suggested at the 1974 seminar on Ẹdo language which took place at the University of Lagos that the designation ‘Ẹdo-Bini’ be used in formal writing to eliminate its confusion with the language group (Egharevba 1956, 1966). With this agreement, ‘Ẹdo’ was freed to be used or referred to as a single language only. It is also very important to point out that ‘Ẹdo’ is intended to refer to an ‘Ẹdo’. That is a speaker of Ẹdo is also a Benin person. The Ẹdo language is today spoken natively throughout Benin as it was spoken in most of the territory conterminous with the Benin Division of the former Mid-Western State of Nigeria which has now been demarcated into OrẸdo, Ego, Ikpoba-Okha, Ovia-North-East and Ovia-South-West. These constitute the permanent core of the Benin metropolis today and are the geographical area of the paper’s focus as already mentioned

Content

Language allows its speakers to talk about anything within their realm of knowledge in the sense that language impose different perceptions of the world on their speakers or predispose them to look at the world in certain ways which is the case with the Ẹdo language. Adejinu (2000) argues that different varieties of a language serve specific functions in communication in which they are used. Variety for him is therefore described as any form of a language which can be identified in a speech community. Trudgill (2004) claims that language varies not only according to social characteristics of the speaker but also according to the social context in which he finds himself. He posited his claims by saying that the same speaker uses different linguistic varieties in different situations and for different purposes. He was actually saying that contextual constraints also affect language use in a community whether in the form of songs or words in that community...

Conclusion

The conclusion can be found in the main file..

References

References are available in the main file..



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